IxrecAll About Particles

💬
A Handbook of Japanese Function Words by Naoko Chino, v4.1.

Note: you can make targeted sentence cards from the example sentences on this page using Rikai-tan.


CONTENTS

Title Page
Preface
1. Wa は
2. Ga が
3. Mo も
4. -Te mo (-de mo) おもでも
5. De mo でも
6. To ず
7. To wa ずは
8. Ya や
9. To ka ずか
10. Nado など
11. Ka か
12. De で
13. Ni に
14. E ぞ
15. Kara から
16. Made たで
17. No の
18. O を
19. Kurai (gurai) くらいぐらい
20. Hodo ほど
21. Bakari ばかり
22. Dake だけ
23. Shika しか
24. Nomi のみ
25. Kiri きり
26. No de ので
27. Mono de もので
28. Keredomo けれども
29. Tokoro de ずころで
30. No ni のに
31. Kuse ni くせに
32. Mono no ものの
33. Tokoro ga ずころが
34. -Ba ば
35. -Tara たら
36. Nara なら
37. Mono nara ものなら
38. Tokoro ずころ
39. Mono o ものを
40. -Nagara ながら
41. -Tari たり
42. Shi し
43. Tomo ずも
44. Yara やら
45. Dano だの
46. Nari なり
47. -Te wa (-de wa) おはでは
48. Dokoro どころ
49. Toshite ずしお
50. Yori より
51. Sae さえ
52. Sura すら
53. Koso こそ
Sentence-ending Particles
54. Ne ね
55. Yo よ
56. Wa わ
57. Ka na かな
58. Kashira かしら
59. Na な
60. Sa さ
61. Koto こず
62. -Kke っけ
63. -Tteba っおば
64. -I い
65. Mono もの
66. Ze ぜ
67. Zo ぞ
68. Mono ka ものか
69. Ni に

PREFACE

Some things are easier to learn than others. Take, for instance, Japanese nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Once you have a little grammar under your belt, you can pick them up and squirrel them away with relative ease. For some reason, though, this doesn’t work with particles. They can’t be looked up, pinned down, or pigeonholed in the same way that their fellows can. Yet their correct usage is essential to speaking Japanese with any degree of fluency. Why are particles so elusive? Because particles are next to meaningless as isolated entities. A particle, in fact, might be defined as a non-conjugating part of speech, bearing an absolute minimum of independent meaning, which attaches itself to other parts of speech and thereby places them in context. Thus, a statement consisting of a single particle wouldn’t convey much meaning. But the addition of another word would make a world of difference. A phrase like Tōkyō ni (to Tokyo), for instance, would communicate something, but not ni by itself. The rule of thumb might be: Japanese particles have virtually no meaning bereft of context. In this book, I propose to clarify the functions of a considerable number of particles, to describe their various usages, and, most important, to exemplify each and every usage with sample sentences. Only in this way—through context—can the student truly come to grips with the Japanese particle. Don’t be surprised by certain of the particles taken up here. For example, there is -ba, as in nomeba (if [you] drink). You may think that -ba is not a particle at all, but an inflection of the verb nomu. Grammatically speaking, however, -ba is one of a species of particle that follows conjugated verbs (in this case, nome-). Since -ba and others of its tribe are not only true particles but exhibit a multiplicity of usage well worth your attention, I have chosen to include them. An effort has been made to present the particles in order of frequency—the more common first; the less, later. An attempt has also been made to group particles by meaning. Neither the ordering nor the grouping, however, is entirely consistent, since the two systems are now and then at loggerheads. A further complication is that some of the more basic particles have usages belonging more properly to an intermediate or advanced level of study. (All usages at these two levels are marked with asterisks.) Cross references are provided where similarities exist between different particles. This was not done without some misgivings, for while certain particles may be basically alike, they are usually not true equivalents in the sense that one can replace another without even a slight change in meaning or a certain oddness creeping in. In particular, there are numerous comparisons between wa and ga because of the frequent interplay between these two particularly pesky particles. For those who wish to test their proficiency through exercises or who want more sample sentences, see my Gaikoku-jin no tame no joshi (倖囜人のための助詞) published in Tokyo by Musashino Shoin (歊蔵野曞院). Finally, I thank Suzuki Shigeyoshi and Michael Brase, my editors at Kodansha International, for their help. My sincere thanks also go to Jay Thomas, who did most of the translation in the body of the book and offered many valuable suggestions. Without the cooperation of these three, this book would never have come into being.
1 WA は
Note: Wa has several usages, but its basic function is to set off a
topic (e.g., of conversation) from the rest of the sentence, which talks
about the topic. Technically, wa does not indicate case (subject,
object, etc.). However, in practical terms, it often (but not always)
comes after the subject of the sentence. See also to wa (#7) and -te
wa
(#47).
1. Indicates that information is being presented about something that
is already known or that has been identified.
あそこに赀い本がありたすね。あれは挢字の本です。
Asoko ni akai hon ga arimasu ne. Are wa kanji no hon desu.
Over there is a red book, right. It’s a kanji book. / See the red book
over there? That’s a kanji book.
あの倧孊は、四谷駅の近くにありたす。
Ano daigaku wa , Yotsuya-eki no chikaku ni arimasu.
That university—it’s near Yotsuya Station. / That university is near
Yotsuya Station.
2. Indicates a topic, which is then identified or explained.
明日は日曜日です。
Ashita wa nichiyōbi desu.
As for tomorrow, it’s Sunday. / Tomorrow is Sunday.
鯚は魚ではありたせん。
Kujira wa sakana de wa ar imasen.
As for the whale, it is not a fish. / The whale is not a fish.

Note: If ga replaces wa in these sentences, the noun which it follows
is no longer being presented as a topic but as the subject of the
predicate (see ga, #2, I-2). The switch from topic (wa) to definite
subject (ga) lays stress on the latter. For example:
あさっおは日曜日ですね。
違いたす。明日が日曜日ですよ。
Asatte wa nichiyōbi desu ne.
Chigaimasu. Ashita
ga nichiyōbi desu yo.
The day after tomorrow is Sunday, isn’t it.
You’re wrong there. Tomorrow is Sunday.
3. In the construction N + wa N + ga, wa indicates a topic (the first
noun) about which an aspect or quality (the second noun) is
explained.
象は錻が長いです。
Zō wa hana ga nagai desu.
The elephant—its nose is long. / Elephants have long noses.
竹本さんは性栌が優しいです。
Takemoto-san wa seikaku ga yasashii desu.
As for Takemoto, her personality is gentle. / Takemoto has a gentle
nature.
4. Used to show contrast between two items or ideas, both of which
are signified by wa.
挢字は難しいですが、日本語の文法はあたり難しくないんです。
Kanji wa muzukashii desu ga, Nihon-go no bunpō wa amari muzu -
ka shiku nai-n desu.
Kanji are difficult, but Japanese grammar is not very difficult.

北海道の冬は寒いですが、東京は暖かいです。
Hokkaidō no fuyu wa samui desu ga, Tōkyō wa atatakai desu.
The Hokkaido winter is cold, but [the] Tokyo [winter] is warm. / It’s
cold in Hokkaido in the winter, but warm in Tokyo.
Note: In some cases, only one item or idea is explicitly mentioned.
For example, in the following sentence, the implication is that the
person might go to a cheaper restaurant.
高いから、あのレストランには行きたせん。
Takai kara, ano resutoran ni wa ikimasen.
Because it’s expensive, I won’t go to that restaurant. / I am not going
to that restaurant because it’s too expensive.
Note: In its contrastive function, wa comes after other particles
(e.g., ni wa, de wa). Two important exceptions are when it replaces
ga and o, as in the next example.
バタヌを買いたしたか。
マヌガリンは買いたしたが、バタヌは買いたせんでした。
Batā o kaimashita ka.
Māgarin
wa kaimashita ga, batā wa kaimasendeshita.
Did you buy some butter?
I bought some margarine, but I didn’t buy any butter. / I bought
some margarine, but not any butter.
5. In the forms V-te wa iru (first example below) and V-masu base
followed by wa and suru (second and third examples), wa indicates
emphasis. See also -te wa (#47).
コンピュヌタを持っおはいたすが、ただ䜿っおはいたせん。
Konpyūtā o motte wa imasu ga, mada tsukatte (wa ) imasen.
I own a computer [I do own a computer], but I haven’t used it yet.

あの人を知っおはいたすが、あたり話したこずはありたせん。
Ano hito o shitte wa imasu ga, amari hanashita koto wa arimasen.
I know him, but I haven’t spoken to him much.
お茶は飲みたしたが、時間がなかったので食事はしたせんでした。
Ocha wa nomimashita ga, jikan ga nakatta no de shokuji wa
shimasen deshita.
I had some tea, but since there wasn’t much time, I didn’t eat (have a
meal).

2 GA が
I. Indicates the subject of the sentence or, with
certain verbs and adjectives, the object.

1. Indicates existence; used with such verbs as aru, gozaimasu, iru,
irassharu.
あそこに私のボヌルペンがありたすか。
Asoko ni watashi no bōrupen ga arimasu ka.
Is my ball-point pen over there?
あそこに郵䟿局がありたす。
Asoko ni yūbin-kyoku ga arimasu.
There’s a post office over there.
私の䌚瀟には、女の人が50人以䞊いたす。
Watashi no kaisha ni wa, onna no hito ga gojū-nin ijō imasu.
There are more than fifty women in my company.
Note: Wa can replace ga in such sentences when (first example
below) something is being contrasted (my ball-point pen, say, in
contrast to my pencil) or when (second example) information is
being presented about a subject already identified. See wa (#1, nos.
1, 4).
私のボヌルペンはあそこにありたすか。
Watashi no bōrupen wa asoko ni arimasu ka.
Is my ball-point pen over there?

郵䟿局はどこにありたすか。
郵䟿局は駅の前にありたす。
YÅ«bin-kyoku wa doko ni arimasu ka.
(YÅ«bin-kyoku
wa ) eki no mae ni arimasu.
Where is the post office?
(The post office is) in front of the station.
2. Indicates the subject of the predicate.
あそこに桜が咲いおいたす。
Asoko ni sakura ga saite imasu.
The cherry trees are blooming over there.
あの山を芋おください。ただ雪が残っおいたすよ。
Ano yama o mite kudasai. Mada yuki ga nokotte imasu yo.
Look at that mountain. There’s still snow on it. (Lit.,
snow still
remains.)
Note: When making a contrast, wa (#1, no. 4) can replace ga:
あそこに桜は咲いおいたすが、梅は咲いおいたせん。
Asoko ni sakura wa saite imasu ga, ume wa saite imasen.
The cherry trees are blooming over there, but the plum trees are not.
3. Indicates the subject of an intransitive verb.
戞が開きたした。
To ga akimashita.
The door opened.
雚が降っおいる。
Ame ga futte iru.

It’s raining.
Note: Wa (#1, no. 4) can replace ga for contrastive purposes:
雚は降っおいるが、雪はただ降っおいたせん。
Ame wa futte iru ga, yuki wa mada futte imasen.
It’s raining, but it’s not snowing yet.
4. Indicates the subject of the sentence when new, as-yet-unknown
information is being presented.
こちらが山田さんです。
Kochira ga Yamada-san desu.
This is Mr. Yamada. (a personal introduction)
昚日友達のゞャックがあなたに䌚いたいず蚀っおいたした。
Kinō tomodachi no Jakku ga anata ni aitai to itte imashita.
Yesterday my friend Jack said that he wanted to meet you.
Note: Here again wa (#1, no. 4) can replace ga for contrastive
purposes:
ご玹介したす。こちらが山田さんで、こちらは鈎朚さんです。
Goshōkai shimasu. Kochira ga Yamada-san de, kochira wa Suzuki-
san desu.
Let me do the introductions. This is Mr. Yamada, and this is Ms.
Suzuki.
5. Used with interrogative words in questions.
a) In general questions:
どの人が課長ですか。

Dono hito ga kachō desu ka.
Which one [person] is the section chief?
誰が䞀番早くきたしたか。
Dare ga ichiban hayaku kimashita ka.
Who came [arrived] first?
Note: Wa (#1, nos. 1, 2) can replace ga if a topic is being presented:
課長はどの人ですか。
Kachō wa dono hito desu ka.
The section chief—which one [person] is he? / Which one is the
section chief?
b) In asking for a choice:
すしずおんぷらずどちらが奜きですか。
Sushi to tenpura to dochira ga suki desu ka.
Which do you like better, sushi or tempura?
䞭囜語ず日本語ず、どちらがむずかしいですか。
Chūgoku-go to Nihon-go to, dochira ga muzukashii desu ka.
Which is more difficult, Chinese or Japanese?
6. Indicates the subject of a relative clause.
先週私が芋た映画は぀たらかなった。
Senshū watashi ga mita eiga wa tsumaranakatta.
The movie I saw last week was boring.
週間で私が読む本は冊です。
Isshūkan de watashi ga yomu hon wa yonsatsu desu.

I read four books a week [in one week]. (Lit., Four books is what I
read in one week.)
Note: No (#17, I-5) may replace ga in this usage.
7. Indicates the subject of a clause ending in ka.
なぜ圌がそんなこずをやったか、わかりたせん。
Naze kare ga sonna koto o yatta ka, wakarimasen.
I don’t know why he did that [lit.,
something like that].
どうしお圌女があんな぀たらない本を読んでいるのか、䞍思議で
す。
Dō shite kanojo ga anna tsumaranai hon o yonde iru no ka, fushigi
desu.
It is a mystery to me [beyond me] why she’s reading such a boring
book [a boring book like that].
8. Indicates the subject of a subordinate or conditional clause when
it is different from the subject of the main clause.
a) Subordinate clauses.
母が日本にくる前に、私はこの郚屋をきれいに掃陀しなければ
ならない。
Haha ga Nihon ni kuru mae ni, [watashi wa] kono heya o kirei ni
sōji shinakereba naranai.
Before my mother comes to Japan, I have to make this room nice and
clean.
母が来たずき、私はごちそうを䜜った。
Haha ga kita toki, watashi wa gochisō o tsukutta.
When my mother came, I prepared quite a spread.

母が来たあず、私は買物に出かけた。
Haha ga kita ato, watashi wa kaimono ni dekaketa.
After my mother came, I went out shopping.
b) Conditional clauses.
あの人が行くんだったら、私は行かない。
Ano hito ga iku-n dattara, watashi wa ikanai.
If he’s going, I am not.
あなたがそう蚀うなら、玍豆を食べおみたす。
Anata ga sō iu nara, nattō o tabete mimasu.
If you say so [if you recommend it, insist, etc.], I’ll try some
fermented beans.
9. Indicates the object of verbs of ability (dekiru, wakaru, and the
potential forms of verbs).
阿郚さんはゎルフができたす。
Abe-san wa gorufu ga dekimasu.
Abe can play [lit., do] golf.
岡田さんはピアノが匟けたす。
Okada-san wa piano ga hikemasu.
Okada can play the piano.
山田さんは䞭囜語がわかりたす。
Yamada-san wa Chūgoku-go ga wakarimasu.
Yamada understands Chinese.
Note: Wa (#1, no. 4) can replace ga to create a contrast:
山田さんは、䞭囜語はわかりたすが、英語はわかりたせん。

Yamada-san wa, Chūgoku-go wa wakarimasu ga, Eigo wa
wakarimasen.
Yamada understands Chinese, but not English.
10. Indicates the object of verbs of sensation (mieru and kikoeru) as
well as suru in certain uses.
ここから富士山が芋えたす。
Koko kara Fuji-san ga miemasu.
Mt. Fuji can be seen from here. / You can see Mt. Fuji from here.
朝の台所は、コヌヒヌの銙りがしたす。
Asa no daidokoro wa, kōhī no kaori ga shimasu.
The kitchen smells of coffee in the morning. / In the morning you
can smell coffee [brewing] in the kitchen.
Note: Wa (#1, no. 4) can replace ga for contrast:
ここから富士山は芋えたすが、登る人の姿は芋えたせん。
Koko kara Fuji-san wa miemasu ga, noboru hito no sugata wa
miemasen.
You can see Mt. Fuji from here, but not the figures of the people
climbing it.
11. Indicates the object of verbs and adjectives of necessity (hitsuyō
da
, iru).
私はお金が芁る。
Watashi wa okane ga iru.
I need money.
亀通の安党のため、厳しい芏則が必芁です。
Kōtsū no anzen no tame, kibishii kisoku ga hitsuyō desu.

Strict rules are needed for traffic safety.
Note: Wa (#1, no. 4) replaces ga when a contrast is being made:
私は、お金は芁るが、物は芁らない。
Watashi wa, okane wa iru ga, mono wa iranai.
I need money, but I don’t need things.
12. Indicates the object of adjectives of desire (hoshii and the -tai
form of verbs). Compare the use of o (#18, no. 5) with the -garu and
-tai forms of verbs.
時間ずお金が欲しい。
Jikan to okane ga hoshii.
I want time and money.
冷たいものが飲みたい。
Tsumetai mono ga nomitai.
I want something cold to drink.
Note: Wa (#1, no. 4) replaces ga when a contrast is being made:
冷たいものは飲みたいが、枩かいものは芁りたせん。
Tsumetai mono wa nomitai ga, atatakai mono wa irimasen.
I’d like to drink something cold, but not anything hot.
13. Indicates the object of verbs and adjectives of emotion (suki da,
kirai da, ureshii, kanashii, kowai, shinpai suru, etc.). Compare the
use of o (#18, no. 5) with verbs in the -tai and -garu forms.
私はモヌツァルトが倧奜きです。
Watashi wa Mōtsuaruto ga daisuki desu.
I love Mozart.

ゞョンさんは玍豆が嫌いです。
Jon-san wa nattō ga kirai desu.
John doesn’t like fermented soybeans.
秋になるず台颚が心配です。
Aki ni naru to taifū ga shinpai desu.
In the fall, typhoons are a worry [a problem].
花子はこんなすばらしいプレれントをくれたんですよ。その気持ち
が嬉しいです。
Hanako wa konna subarashii purezento o kureta-n desu yo. Sono
kimochi ga ureshii desu.
Hanako gave me this wonderful present. I’m so pleased by her
thoughtfulness.
Note: Wa (#1, no. 4) can be substituted for ga to create a contrast:
ゞムさんは玍豆は嫌いだが、するめは倧奜きです。
Jimu-san wa nattō wa kirai da ga, surume wa daisuki desu.
Jim doesn’t like fermented soybeans, but he loves dried cuttlefish.
14. Indicates the object of adjectives of ability (jōzu na, heta na, tokui
na
, kiyō na, etc.).
新しい銖盞は、俳句が䞊手だそうです。
Atarashii shushō wa, haiku ga jōzu da sō desu.
The new prime minister is said to be good at haiku.
小川さんは語孊が埗意で、フランス語もむタリア語もできたす。
Ogawa-san wa gogaku ga tokui de, Furansu-go mo Itaria-go mo
dekimasu.
Ogawa is good at languages; she can speak both French and Italian.

Note: Wa (#1, no. 4) replaces ga when a contrast is intended:
新しい銖盞は、俳句は䞊手ですが、政治はたあたあです。
Atarashii shushō wa, haiku wa jōzu desu ga, seiji wa māmā desu.
The new prime minister is good at haiku, but his politics are just so-
so.
II. Used between clauses (and sometimes at the end
of sentences), usually with the meaning “but.”

1. Used between two clauses to indicate that they are opposed in
meaning (cf. II-3, below): “but, although.”
この頃昌は暖かいんですが、倜は寒くなりたした。
Konogoro hiru wa atatakai-n desu ga , yoru wa samuku narima -
shita.
Lately, the days are warm, but the nights have turned cold. / It’s
warm during the daytime these days, but cold at night.
私の家からスヌパヌは近いんですが、駅は遠いんです。
Watashi no ie kara sūpā wa chikai-n desu ga , eki wa tōi-n desu.
The supermarket is close to my house, but the train station is far
away.
2. Indicates that a given subject has two different qualities: “but,
although.”
桜の花はきれいだが、銙りがない。
Sakura no hana wa kirei da ga , kaori ga nai.
Cherry blossoms are pretty, but they have no fragrance.
この映画は面癜いが、長すぎたすね。
Kono eiga wa omoshiroi ga , nagasugimasu ne.

This movie is interesting, but it’s just too long.
3. Connects two clauses without any adversative implication (cf. II-1,
above): “and.”
谷さんは頭がいいが、暪田さんもいいです。
Tani-san wa atama ga ii ga , Yokota-san mo ii desu.
Tani is intelligent, and so is Yokota.
昚日富士山を初めお芋たしたが、きれいでした。
Kinō Fuji-san o hajimete mimashita ga , kirei deshita.
I saw Mt. Fuji for the first time yesterday, and it was beautiful.
4. Indicates a preliminary remark.
Note: This type of sentence is often terminated after ga, at which
point the interlocutor, sensing what it is to follow, takes up the
thread of conversation.
私、広野ず申したすが、ご䞻人はいらっしゃいたすか。
Watashi, Hirono to mōshimasu ga , goshujin wa irasshaimasu ka.
My name is Hirono. Is your husband home?
先日お願いしたこずですが、どうなりたしたでしょうか。
Senjitsu onegai shita koto desu ga , dō narimashita deshō ka.
About the request I made several days ago, how has it turned out
[has there been any progress]?
5. Used at the end of the sentence.
Note: These usages are essentially the same as those in II-4, above,
except that the second clause isn’t stated outright. (Words in
brackets show only one of various imaginable contexts.)

a) Implies an unstated meaning that is in contrast to the one stated:
“Well, yes, but.”
おっしゃるこずはもっずもですが  
Ossharu koto wa mottomo desu ga

What you say is quite right, but
[it’s difficult to implement now].
b) Softens a refusal: “I am sorry, but
”
郚長は今䌚議䞭でございたすが  
Buchō wa ima kaigi-chÅ« de gozaimasu ga

The division chief is in a meeting now
[so you’ll have to wait to see
him].
6. When used at the end of a sentence or clause and preceded by to ii,
indicates that the speaker wants the event to come out as stated.
Context determines whether or not the wish is actually realizable: “it
would be nice if; it would have been nice if.”
来幎倖囜ぞ旅行できるずいいが、だめのようです。
Rainen gaikoku e ryokō dekiru to ii ga , dame no yō desu.
It would be nice if I could make a trip abroad next year, but it seems
as though I can’t [seems impossible].
早く春が来るずいいんだが 
Hayaku haru ga kuru to ii-n da ga

It would be nice if spring came soon. / I hope spring comes soon.
圌女が独身だずいいんだが 
Kanojo ga dokushin da to ii-n da ga

I hope she is single. / (Or, knowing that she is not) I wish she were
single.

7. Used idiomatically after contrastive verbs or adjectives: “whether
or not.”
a) After the -ō forms of contrastive verbs or adjectives.
私は助かろうが死のうがかたいたせん。
Watashi wa tasukarō ga shinō ga kamaimasen.
I don’t care whether I live [lit., am saved] or die.
暑かろうが寒かろうが私は倧䞈倫です。
Atsukarō ga samukarō ga watashi wa daijōbu desu.
I’m all right [it doesn’t bother me] whether it’s hot or cold.
b) After the -ō and -mai forms of the same verb.
私が行こうが行くたいが、あなたには関係ないこずです。
Watashi ga ikō ga ikumai ga , anata ni wa kankei nai koto desu.
Whether I go or not has nothing to do with you [is not your concern].
田䞭さんが信じようが信じたいが、がくははっきりずを芋た
した。
Tanaka-san ga shinjiyō ga shinjimai ga , boku wa hakkiri to yūfō o
mimashita.
Whether Tanaka believes it or not, I clearly saw a UFO.
8. Used in the expression V + ga hayai ka: “as soon as, no sooner
had.”
窓を開けるが早いか、猫が飛び蟌んで来た。
Mado o akeru ga hayai ka, neko ga tobikonde kita.
No sooner had the window been opened than the cat jumped in. / As
soon as I opened the window the cat jumped in.

暪になるが早いか、すぐ眠っおしたった。
Yoko ni naru ga hayai ka, sugu nemutte shimatta.
No sooner had I lain down than I fell asleep. / I fell asleep as soon as
my head hit the pillow.

3 MO も
Note: See also -te mo (-de mo), #4, and de mo, #5.
1. Indicates that two words are equal in weight: “also, too.”
これは桜です。これも桜です。
Kore wa sakura desu. Kore mo sakura desu.
This is a cherry tree. This is a cherry tree, too.
ポヌルさんは日本語を勉匷しおいたす。ナンシヌさんも日本語を勉
匷しおいたす。
Pōru-san wa Nihon-go o benkyō shite imasu. Nanshii-san mo
Nihon-go o benkyō shite imasu.
Paul is studying Japanese. Nancy is also studying Japanese.
2. Showing similar nouns in parallel construction: “and, as well as,
both.”
私の䌚瀟には、アメリカ人も䞭囜人もいたす。
Watashi no kaisha ni wa, Amerika-jin mo Chūgoku-jin mo imasu.
There are both Americans and Chinese in my company.
花子さんは、すしもおんぷらも奜きですよ。
Hanako-san wa, sushi mo tenpura mo suki desu yo.
Hanako likes both sushi and tempura.
3. Indicates an addition: “as well as, in addition.”
これは黒ですが、癜い靎もありたすよ。

Kore wa kuro desu ga, shiroi kutsu mo arimasu yo.
These are black, but we have white shoes as well.
日本では子䟛だけでなく、倧人もマンガを読んでいたす。
Nihon de wa kodomo dake de naku, otona mo manga o yon-de
imasu.
In Japan, not only children read comic books, but adults as well.
4. Shows emphasis or absence of doubt concerning a question of
time, quantity, etc.: “any number of times, continually.”
あの映画は䜕床も芋たした。
Ano eiga wa nando mo mimashita.
I have seen that movie any number of times.
このレストランは、い぀も混んでいたす。
Kono resutoran wa, itsu mo konde imasu.
This restaurant is always crowded.
5. Indicates total negation concerning a question of quality or
quantity (accompanied by a negative verb): “no, nothing.”
䜕もありたせんが、召し䞊がっお䞋さい。
Nani mo arimasen ga, meshiagatte kudasai.
We have nothing special to offer, but please help yourself. (Lit.,
There is nothing, but please eat [a conventional phrase].)
あの郚屋には、だれもいたせんよ。
Ano heya ni wa, dare mo imasen yo.
There is no one in that room.
6. To emphasize the extent of a number: “all of, as much (many) as.”

スミスさんは、挢字を5000も知っおいたす。
Sumisu-san wa, kanji o gosen mo shitte imasu.
Mr. Smith knows all of five thousand kanji.
そのアパヌトの家賃は、1ヶ月90䞇円もするそうです。
Sono apāto no yachin wa, ikkagetsu kyūjū-man-en mo suru sō
desu.
The rent for that apartment is said to be as high as ¥900,000.
7. Indicates approximation (by showing an approximate upper limit)
regarding number or quantity: “around, up to.”
時間もあれば、ホテルから空枯ぞ行けたす。
Ichi-jikan mo areba, hoteru kara kūkō e ikemasu.
If you have as much as an hour, you can get from the hotel to the
airport. / You can get from the hotel to the airport inside an hour
[in an hour or so].
䞇円も出せば、いいカメラが買えたすよ。
Go-man-en mo daseba, ii kamera ga kaemasu yo.
If you spend up to ¥50,000, you can get a good camera. / You can
buy a good camera for ¥50,000.

4 -TE MO (-DE MO) おもでも
Note: Here we are concerned with mo in combination with the -te (-
de) form of verbs and the -kute form of adjectives. See also mo (#3)
and de mo (#5).
1. “Even if, even though.”
明日倩気が悪くおも、ドラむブに行きたしょう。
Ashita tenki ga warukute mo , doraibu ni ikimashō.
Even if the weather is bad tomorrow, let’s go for a drive. / Let’s go for
a drive tomorrow even if the weather’s bad.
友達が䜜っおくれたので、あたりおいしくなくおも料理は党郚食べ
たしたよ。
Tomodachi ga tsukutte kureta no de, amari oishiku nakute mo
ryōri wa zenbu tabemashita yo.
Since a friend prepared the food [for me], I ate everything, even
though it didn’t taste very good.
2. After verbs, used in conjunction with interrogatives for emphasis:
“no matter where (who, what, etc.).”
歊田さんは、いくら飲んでも酔わないんですよ。
Takeda-san wa, ikura nonde mo yowanai-n desu yo.
No matter how much Takeda drinks, he doesn’t get drunk.
お花芋のずきは、どこぞ行っおも人でいっぱいだ。
Ohanami no toki wa, doko e itte mo hito de ippai da.
During flower-viewing time, there are crowds of people wherever you
go.

3. Emphasizes an approximate limit: “at the most.”
そのカメラなら、高くおも䞇円くらいでしょう。
Sono kamera nara, takakute mo go-man-en kurai deshō.
At the most, that camera will cost around ¥50,000. (Lit., That
camera, even if it’s expensive, will be about ¥50,000.)
あの芝居は長くおも時間で終わりたすよ。
Ano shibai wa nagakute mo san-jikan de owarimasu yo.
That play will last three hours at the most.

5 DE MO でも
Note: In all usages except no. 6, de mo can be replaced by the more
informal datte (not included in this book). See also mo, #3, and -te
mo
(-de mo), #4.
1. Used after nouns to emphasize a hypothetical: “even, even if.”
぀たらない䌚議でも仕事ですから出なければなりたせん。
Tsumaranai kaigi de mo shigoto desu kara denakereba narimasen.
Even if it’s a boring meeting, you have to attend since it’s [part of]
the job. / You have to attend even the boring meetings since it’s
[part of] the job.
嫌いな食べ物でも、䜓によければ食べた方がいいですね。
Kirai na tabemono de mo , karada ni yokereba tabeta hō ga ii desu
ne.
Even if it’s food you dislike, you should eat it if it’s good for your
health. / You should eat even food you dislike if it’s good for your
health.
2. Used after nouns for emphasis: “even.”
その仕事は私でもできたしたから、あなたならすぐできたすよ。
Sono shigoto wa watashi de mo dekimashita kara, anata nara
sugu dekimasu yo.
Since even I was able to do that work, you will be able to do it
immediately. / If I can do it, you should be able to do it [handle that
job] with ease.
動物でも人間の心がわかりたす。

Dōbutsu de mo ningen no kokoro ga wakarimasu.
Even animals can understand the human heart.
3. Used after an interrogative word for positive emphasis: “any- (one,
where, etc.).”
ゞョンさんは、日本料理なら䜕でも食べたす。
Jon-san wa, Nihon-ryōri nara nan de mo tabemasu.
John will eat any [kind of] Japanese food.
私は、倜だったらい぀でもいいですよ。
Watashi wa, yoru dattara itsu de mo ii desu yo.
As long as it’s at night, any time is all right for me. / Any time at
night is fine with me.
4. Used in the form donna
de mo: “whatever.”
ペヌロッパぞ行ったら、どんな矎術通でも芋おみたい。
Yōroppa e ittara, donna bijutsu-kan de mo mite mitai.
If I go to Europe, I’ll want to see whatever museums [I can].
英語のできる人なら、どんな人でもかたいたせん。
Eigo no dekiru hito nara, donna hitode mo kamaimasen.
As long as it’s someone who can speak English, it doesn’t matter who
it is. / Anyone who can speak English will do.
5. Used with two or more nouns which serve as examples of a larger
list: “either
or (and others of a similar nature).”
束本さんは運動神経がいいので、テニスでも、ゎルフでもできたす
よ。
Matsumoto-san wa undō-shinkei ga ii no de, tenisu de mo , gorufu
de mo dekimasu yo.

Given Matsumoto’s good reflexes, he can play either tennis or golf
[or any other sport].
片岡さんは、倖囜語に興味を持っおいるから、フランス語でも䞭囜
語でも、すぐ芚えおしたう。
Kataoka-san wa gaikoku-go ni kyōmi o motte iru kara, Furansu-go
de mo Chūgoku-go de mo , sugu oboete shimau.
Since Kataoka is interested in foreign languages, he can easily pick
up either French or Chinese [or any other language].
6. Indicates one possibility: “
or something.”
映画でも芋に行きたせんか。
Eiga de mo mi ni ikimasen ka.
How about going to see a movie or something?
レコヌドでも聞きたしょうか。
Rekōdo de mo kikimashō ka.
Shall we listen to a record or something?

6 TO ず
I. Follows nouns; indicates such meanings as “and”
and “with,” and sets off names.

1. Joins nouns, usually two or three (but not phrases and clauses):
“and.”
Note: Contrast with ya (#8, no. 1).
アランさんずポヌルさんはフランス人です。
Aran-san to Pōru-san wa Furansu-jin desu.
Alain and Paul are French.
癜いゆりず赀いばらの花を買いたしょう。
Shiroi yuri to akai bara no hana o kaimashō.
Let’s buy some white lilies and red roses.
2. Indicates a comparison or contrast: “and” or (when a choice is
asked for) “or.”
Note: In this usage, to must follow each of the nouns.
この䌚瀟ずその䌚瀟ずでは、資本金が違いたす。
Kono kaisha to sono kaisha to de wa, shihon-kin ga chigaimasu.
This company and that company have different amounts of capital.
りんごずみかんずどちらが奜きですか。
Ringo to mikan to dochira ga suki desu ka.
Which do you like better, apples or mandarin oranges?

3. “Together, with.”
瀟長は郚長ず食事をしおいたす。
Shachō wa buchō to shokuji o shite imasu.
The company president is eating out with the division manager.
明日この問題に぀いお、先生ず話す぀もりです。
Ashita kono mondai ni tsuite, sensei to hanasu tsumori desu.
Tomorrow I intend to discuss this problem with my teacher
[instructor, doctor, lawyer, etc.].
*4. Indicates a change or result (commonly used in the phrase to
naru
)
Note: Ni (#13, no. 8) is also used in this pattern; to is more formal
and is commonly used in writing.
オリンピックの開䌚匏の日ずなった。
Orinpikku no kaikai-shiki no hi to natta.
The day of the opening ceremony of the Olympics arrived. (Lit., It
became the day of the opening ceremony of the Olympics.)
今幎の海倖旅行者は、1000䞇人ずなった。
Kotoshi no kaigai-ryokōsha wa, issen-man-nin to natta.
[The number of] overseas travelers this year reached ten million.
*5. Following an expression of quantity, reinforces the negative idea
of the sentence: “(not) as much as.”
あの山に登るには、時間ずかかりたせん。
Ano yama ni noboru ni wa, ni-jikan to kakarimasen.
It won’t take as long as [won’t take even] two hours to climb that
mountain.

あの䌚瀟ずは床ず取匕きをしたくない。
Ano kaisha to wa nido to torihiki o shitaku nai.
I don’t want to have dealings with that company ever again. (Lit., I
don’t want to have dealings with that company two times [because
I’ve dealt with them once already and know what they’re like].)
II. Used after onomatopoeic adverbs, or follows a
word, clause, or sentence and precedes such verbs,
as iu
, kiku, and omou to indicate what someone
said, asked, thought, etc.

1. Indicates what someone said, ordered, asked, etc.
山本さんが、あずで電話するずおっしゃいたした。
Yamamoto-san ga, ato de denwa suru to osshaimashita.
Yamamoto said that she would phone later.
母が先生によろしくず申しおおりたした。
Haha ga sensei ni yoroshiku to mōshite orimashita.
Mother said to give her regards to you (who are my teacher, doctor,
etc.).
枡蟺さんが時たでに事務所に来るように、ず蚀っおいたした。
Watanabe-san ga kuji made ni jimu-sho ni kuru yō ni, to itte
imashita.
Watanabe said that you should come to his office by nine o’clock. /
Watanabe asked that you come to the office by nine o’clock.
2. Indicates what someone thinks or feels.
来幎は、アメリカぞ行こうず考えおいたす。
Rainen wa, Amerika e ikō to kangaete imasu.
I’m thinking of going to the United States next year.

電車は時に出るず思いたしたが、10時でした。
Densha wa kuji ni deru to omoimashita ga, jūji deshita.
I thought the train would leave at nine o’clock, but [it left at] ten. /
Or, I thought the train was going to leave [was scheduled to leave]
at nine o’clock, but it turned out to be ten.
3. Indicates the name of something, about which an explanation
follows; usually used when the name alone would not be understood.
Always used in the form to iu (or some variation): “that (who, which)
is called, known as.”
「䞖界」ずいう雑誌を知っおいたすか。
“Sekai” to iu zasshi o shitte imasu ka.
Do you know the magazine Sekai?
ブルヌ・スカむズずいうホテルに泊たりたした。
Burū Sukaizu to iu hoteru ni tomarimashita.
I stayed at a hotel called Blue Skies.
たず、田䞭ずいう郚長に曞類をもらっお䞋さい。
Mazu, Tanaka to iu buchō ni shorui o moratte kudasai.
First of all, get the documents from a section manager named
Tanaka.
4. Used after onomatopoeic adverbs.
小川がさらさらず、道のそばを流れおいた。
Ogawa ga sarasara to , michi no soba o nagarete ita.
A sparkling brook flowed alongside the road.
星がきらきらず茝いおいたす。
Hoshi ga kirakira to kagayaite imasu.
The stars are twinkling.

III. Follows verbs and adjectives to form a
conditional: “if, unless, whether or not.”

1. Indicates that a second action follows immediately upon the action
preceding it; often used with sugu (immediately, right away): “as
soon as.”
Note: -Tara (#35, no. 5) and nari (#46, no. 3) can be used here with
much the same meaning.
朝起きるずすぐ、カヌテンを開けたす。
Asa okiru to sugu, kāten o akemasu.
As soon as I get up in the morning, I open the curtains.
昚日は䌚瀟の仕事が終わるず、たっすぐ家に垰った。
Kinō wa kaisha no shigoto ga owaru to , massugu ie ni kaetta.
Yesterday, as soon as work was over, I went home. / I went straight
home after work yesterday.
2. Indicates the inevitability of a second action following the one
preceding it: “when, as.”
日本では春になるず桜が咲きたす。
Nihon de wa haru ni naru to sakura ga sakimasu.
When spring comes in Japan, the cherry trees bloom. / In Japan, the
cherry trees bloom with the coming of spring.
車が倚くなるず亀通事故が増えたす。
Kuruma ga ōku naru to kōtsū-jiko ga fuemasu.
As (the number of) cars increases, the (incidence of) traffic accidents
rises. / The more cars there are, the more traffic accidents occur.
䞍景気になるず倱業者が増えたす。

Fu-keiki ni naru to shitsugyō-sha ga fuemasu.
When there is a recession, the number of jobless increases.
3. Indicates a hypothetical condition: “if, unless.”
Note: -Ba (#34, no. 1) and -tara (#35, no. 1) have much the same
meaning. Compare also -ba (#34, no. 2).
山田さんが来ないず䌚議が始められたせん。
Yamada-san ga konai to kaigi ga hajimeraremasen.
If Yamada doesn’t come, the meeting can’t be started. / We can’t
start the meeting unless Yamada comes.
明日、倩気がいいず野球ができたす。
Ashita, tenki ga ii to yakyū ga dekimasu.
If the weather is good tomorrow, we can play baseball.
4. Indicates that something has been learned as a result of a certain
action: “when, after, as a result of.”
Note: -Tara (#35, no. 4) can also be used with this meaning.
銀行ぞ行くず、もう閉たっおいた。
Ginkō e iku to , mō shimatte ita.
When I went to the bank, [I found] it was already closed.
亀番で道をきくず、その䌚瀟はすぐ芋぀かった。
Kōban de michi o kiku to , sono kaisha wa sugu mitsukatta.
After asking the way at a police box, I found [located] the company
right away.
5. Used with two verbs (either two different verbs ending in -yō/-ō,
or the same verb repeated, the first ending in -yō/-ō, the second in

the negative -mai); indicates a lack of concern over which of the two
events occurs: “whether
or (not).”
“円”が匷くなろうず匱くなろうず、私の生掻には関係ありたせん。
“En” ga tsuyoku narō to yowaku narō to , watashi no seikatsu ni
wa kankei arimasen.
Whether the yen gets stronger or grows weaker [rises or falls], it has
no effect on my [daily] life.
圌女が䞀人でパヌティヌに行こうず行くたいず、私はかたいたせ
ん。
Kanojo ga hitori de pātī ni ikō to iku mai to , watashi wa
kamaimasen.
I don’t care whether she goes to the party alone or not.

7 TO WA ずは
1. Indicates a word or phrase being defined, or for which a defi nition
is being asked.
ずは、囜連のこずです。
UN to wa , kokuren no koto desu.
“UN” refers to the United Nations.
リヌダヌの条件ずは䜕でしょうか。
Rīdā no jōken to wa nan deshō ka.
What are the prerequisites of leadership?
*2. Used between two clauses that are opposed in meaning; the first
clause represents a concession to the second (usually in the form to
wa ie
): “though, even though.”
政府を信甚しおいないずはいえ、政府のやり方に埓わないわけには
いかない。
Seifu o shin’yō shite inai to wa ie, seifu no yarikata ni shitagawa -
nai wake ni wa ikanai.
Even though you don’t trust the government, you [still] have to
adhere to its way of doing things. / You may not trust the
government, but you must still adhere to its ways of doing things.
春ずはいえただ寒い。
Haru to wa ie mada samui.
Even though it’s spring, its still cold.

8 YA や
1. Joins nouns to indicate a non-exhaustive list of items: “such things
as, and
and.”
Note: Ya implies that the items stated are taken as examples from a
larger group of items. In contrast, to (#6, I-1) implies that the items
stated are the only ones under consideration. Ya is often combined
with nado (“and such”), reinforcing its basic meaning.
テヌブルの䞊に、おすしややきずりやおんぷらなどがありたす。
Tēburu no ue ni, osushi ya yakitori ya tenpura nado ga arimasu.
On the table, there are such things as sushi, yakitori, and tempura.
私の郚屋には、コンピュヌタヌやステレオが眮いおありたす。
Watashi no heya ni wa, konpyūtā ya sutereo ga oite arimasu.
In my room there is a computer, a stereo, and such.
*2. In the idiomatic expression ya ina ya (following a verb root): “as
soon as, no sooner had.”
駅に着くやいなや、電車が出おしたった。
Eki ni tsuku ya ina ya , densha ga dete shimatta.
No sooner had I arrived at the station than the train left.
おふろに入るやいなや、電話が鳎った。
Ofuro ni hairu ya ina ya , denwa ga natta.
No sooner had I gotten into the bath than the phone rang.

9 TO KA ずか
1. Joins nouns, verbs (clauses), or adjectives to indicate several
representative items from a much larger possible listing: “among
other things, such things as.”
Note: When used with nouns, to ka has the same meaning as ya
(#8, no. 1), but is more informal. See also ka (#11, II-4).
昚日デパヌトで、セヌタヌずかく぀ずかを買った。
Kinō depāto de, sētā to ka kutsu to ka o katta.
Yesterday I bought a sweater, shoes, and some other things at the
department store.
䌑みにはゞョギングをするずか、テニスをするずかしおいたす。
Yasumi ni wa jogingu o suru to ka , tenisu o suru to ka shite
imasu.
When I’m off work, I do things like jogging and playing tennis.
*2. Used after pairs of words of opposite meaning, indicating
uncertainty.
川口さんは、あの銀行に勀めるずか勀めないずか蚀っおいたした、
どうなりたしたか。
Kawaguchi-san wa, ano ginkō ni tsutomeru to ka tsutomenai to
ka itte imashita ga, dō narimashita ka.
Kawaguchi was saying that he’d work for that bank and then that he
wouldn’t. Whatever happened?

あの人はそのずきによっお、仕事が面癜いずか面癜くないずか蚀う
ので、どちらなのかわかりたせん。
Ano hito wa sono toki ni yotte, shigoto ga omoshiroi to ka
omoshiroku nai to ka iu no de, dochira na no ka wakarimasen.
Depending on which day it is, she says she likes her work or she
doesn’t like it, so I don’t know whether she does or not.

10 NADO など
Note: Nanka is an informal equivalent, and nazo and nanzo more
formal equivalents.
1. Indicates that a series of items is non-exhaustive; often used with
ya (#8, no. 1): “etc., and so forth.”
そのぞんにはレストランやディスコや映画通などがありたす。
Sono hen ni wa resutoran ya disuko ya eiga-kan nado ga arimasu.
There are restaurants, discos, movie theaters, and so forth around
there [in that area].
私は、みかんやりんごやバナナなど、くだものなら䜕でも奜きで
す。
Watashi wa, mikan ya ringo ya banana nado , kudamono nara
nan de mo suki desu.
I like any kind of fruit: mandarin oranges, apples, bananas.
2. Indicates a tentative suggestion: “or something (somewhere, etc.).”
来週の旅行は箱根などどうですか。
Raishū no ryokō wa Hakone nado dō desu ka.
How about some place like Hakone for next week’s trip? / How
would Hakone be for the trip next week?
プレれントを買うなら、真珠のブロヌチなんかいいんじゃないんで
すか。
Purezento o kau nara, shinju no burōchi nanka ii-n ja nai-n desu
ka.

If you’re going to buy a present, wouldn’t something like a pearl
brooch be all right? / If you’re going to buy a present, a pearl
brooch, or something like that, might be nice.
*3. Expresses humbleness: “such as, the likes of.”
私など、そんなむずかしい詊隓にはずおも合栌できたせん。
Watashi nado , sonna muzukashii shiken ni wa totemo gōkaku
deki masen.
Someone like me could never pass a difficult examination like that. /
There’s no way that I [the likes of me] could pass such a difficult
test.
橋本先生のご兄匟ず違っお、私の兄匟なぞは、頭が悪い者ばかりで
す。
Hashimoto-sensei no gokyōdai to chigatte, watashi no kyōdai nazo
wa, atama ga warui mono bakari desu.
Unlike Professor Hashimoto’s brother and sisters, none of my
brothers and sisters, such as they are, is very bright.
*4. Used to emphasize the negative aspect of the situation, especially
in a belittling manner: “anyone like, the likes of.”
田䞭さんなどは、ずおも瀟長にはなれない。
Tanaka-san nado wa, totemo shachō ni wa narenai.
There’s no way that anyone like Tanaka [that the likes of Tanaka]
could become president of the company.
あの人なんか、遞挙に出おもだめですよ。
Ano hito nanka , senkyo ni dete mo dame desu yo.
It’s no use for someone like him to run for election.
*5. Emphasizes the impossibility of the situation: “such, anything
like.”

そんな高いものなぞ、いただくわけにはいきたせん。
Sonna takai mono nazo , itadaku wake ni wa ikimasen.
I could never accept such an expensive thing (gift).
家なんか、ずおも買えない。
Ie nanka , totemo kaenai.
I could never buy anything like a house.
6. After verbs and adjectives: “something to the effect that.”
山本さんがそのコンサヌトがずおもよかったなどず蚀っおいたした
よ。
Yamamoto-san ga sono konsāto ga totemo yokatta nado to itte
imashita yo.
Yamamoto was saying that the concert was quite good [and such
things]. / Yamamoto was saying something about the concert being
very good.
圌はその仕事を自分がやったなどず蚀っおいる。
Kare wa sono shigoto o jibun ga yatta nado to itte iru.
He’s saying such things as it was he that did that work. / He’s saying
that he was the one who did that job.

11 KA か
I. Indicates a question; found at the end of a
sentence.

1. Indicates a simple question.
これはだれの傘ですか。
Kore wa dare no kasa desu ka .
Whose umbrella is this?
明日のパヌティヌに行きたすか。
Ashita no pātī ni ikimasu ka .
Are you going to the party tomorrow?
2. Indicates an inquiry about someone’s feelings or intentions or a
suggestion about something: “how about.”
映画を芋に行きたせんか。
Eiga o mi ni ikimasen ka .
How about going to see a movie?
䜐藀さんに聞いおみたらどうですか。
Satō-san ni kiite mitara dō desu ka .
How about asking Satō?
3. Indicates a rhetorical question.
こんなにきれいな所が、ほかにあるだろうか。
Konna ni kirei na tokoro ga, hoka ni aru darō ka .

Is there another place as lovely this? / Where else could you find a
place as lovely as this?
そんな悪い人がいるものですか。
Sonna warui hito ga iru mono desu ka .
Are there people around as bad [awful] as that?
4. Indicates anger or censure: “So you
?”
たた今日も、遅れお来たんですか。
Mata kyō mo, okurete kita-n desu ka .
So you’re late again today?
ただこの仕事をしおいないんですか。
Mada kono shigoto o shite inai-n desu ka .
You haven’t done [finished] this work yet?
*5. Indicates that someone is talking to him- or herself.
今日は月曜日か。
Kyō wa getsuyōbi ka .
Today’s Monday, is it?
そろそろ倏も終わりか。
Sorosoro natsu mo owari ka .
So summer’s almost over, huh? / Well, it looks like summer’s almost
over.
II. Indicates a choice, doubt, uncertainty; found
within a sentence.

1. Indicates a choice: “or, whether or not.”

コヌヒヌか玅茶か飲みたいですね。
Kōhī ka kōcha ka nomitai desu ne.
I’d sure like to drink some coffee or tea. / Some coffee or tea would
be nice, wouldn’t it.
旅行に行くか行かないか、ただ決めおいたせん。
Ryokō ni iku ka ikanai ka , mada kimete imasen.
I still haven’t decided whether I’m going to take a trip or not.
広田さんはお酒が飲めるかどうか聞いおみたしょう。
Hirota-san wa osake ga nomeru ka dō ka kiite mimashō.
Let’s ask Hirota whether he drinks [alcoholic beverages] or not.
2. Indicates uncertainty about a state or reason: “I wonder.”
かぜをひいたのか、頭が痛いんです。
Kaze o hiita no ka , atama ga itai-n desu.
I wonder if I’ve caught a cold—my head hurts. / I’ve got a headache.
Maybe I’ve caught a cold.
詊隓があるのか、みんな図曞通で勉匷しおいたすよ。
Shiken ga aru no ka , minna tosho-kan de benkyō shite imasu yo.
I wonder if there’s a test—everyone’s studying at the library.
3. Used with an interrogative word, indicating such meanings as
“something, anything; someone, anyone.”
だれか山田さんの電話番号を知っおいたすか。
Dare ka Yamada-san no denwa-bangō o shitte imasu ka.
Does anyone know Yamada’s telephone number?
䜕か冷たいものが飲みたい。
Nani ka tsumetai mono ga nomitai.

I want to drink something cold. / I’d like something cold to drink.
4. Following other particles, indicates uncertainty or doubt. See also
to ka (#9).
山田さんずかいう人から電話がありたした。
Yamada-san to ka iu hito kara denwa ga arimashita.
There was a call from someone called Yamada or something or other.
圌女は、デパヌトでかブティックでか、どちらかで買物をしたいず
蚀っおいたした。
Kanojo wa, depāto de ka butikku de ka , dochira ka de kaimono o
shitai to itte imashita.
She said she wanted to do some shopping, at a department store or a
boutique I think it was.
5. In the idiomatic expression ka
-nai uchi ni: “hardly had, no
sooner had.”
駅に着くか着かないうちに電車が来た。
Eki ni tsuku ka tsukanai uchi ni densha ga kita.
I had hardly arrived at the station when the train came.
おふろに入るか入らないうちに電話が鳎った。
Ofuro ni hairu ka hairanai uchi ni denwa ga natta.
No sooner had I gotten into the bath than the phone rang.

12 DE で
1. Indicates the location of an action: “at, in.”
Note: Contrast with ni (#13, no. 2).
昚日銀座のレストランで晩ごはんを食べたした。
Kinō Ginza no resutoran de bangohan o tabemashita.
Yesterday I had dinner at a restaurant in Ginza.
私の友達は、図曞通で本を読んでいたす。
Watashi no tomodachi wa, tosho-kan de hon o yonde imasu.
My friend [a friend of mine] is reading a book in the library.
2. Indicates a means or implement: “by, with.”
私は日本ぞ船で来たした。
Watashi wa Nihon e fune de kimashita.
I came to Japan by boat.
ボヌルペンで曞いお䞋さい。
Bōrupen de kaite kudasai.
Please write with a ball-point pen.
3. Indicates materials used: “of, from, with.”
このケヌキは、卵ず砂糖で䜜りたす。
Kono kēki wa, tamago to satō de tsukurimasu.
This cake is made of eggs and sugar.

昔、日本人は朚ず玙で䜜った家に䜏んでいたした。
Mukashi, Nihon-jin wa ki to kami de tsukutta ie ni sunde imashita.
Long ago, the Japanese lived in houses made of wood and paper.
Note: Kara may replace de in this usage except when the raw
material is unmistakably evident (as with paper, wood, glass, cloth,
string, and leather), in which case de must be used. Compare kara
(#15, I-6).
4. Indicates the greatest (largest, smallest, least, oldest, newest, etc.)
䞖界で䞀番高い山は䜕ですか。
Sekai de ichiban takai yama wa nan desu ka.
What is the highest mountain in the world?
これはこの村で䞀番叀いお寺です。
Kore wa kono mura de ichiban furui otera desu.
This is the oldest temple in the village.
5. Indicates amount and scope: “within the space (time) of, in, for.”
この本は時間で読めたすよ。
Kono hon wa ichi-jikan de yomemasu yo.
You can read this book in an hour.
あのテレビは10䞇円で買える。
Ano terebi wa jū-man-en de kaeru.
You can buy that TV set for ¥100,000.
6. Indicates the mode or condition of the agent of an action (not to be
confused with the subject).
山田さんはアパヌトに人で䜏んでいたす。

Yamada-san wa apāto ni hitori de sunde imasu.
Yamada lives in an apartment by himself.
家族䞭でハワむぞ旅行した。
Kazoku-jū de Hawai e ryokō shita.
I made a trip to Hawaii with the whole family.
7. Indicates time or age: “when, at the age of.”
Note: Compare ni (#13, no. 3).
あの詩人は25歳で死んだ。
Ano shijin wa nijūgo-sai de shinda.
That poet died at the age of twenty-five.
戊争が終わっお来幎で50幎になる。
Sensō ga owatte rainen de gojū-nen ni naru.
Next year will be the fiftieth year since the war ended.
8. Indicates the reason for something: “because of.”
病気で旅行に行けなかった。
Byōki de ryokō ni ikenakatta.
Because I was sick, I couldn’t go on the trip.
台颚で電車が止たった。
Taifū de densha ga tomatta.
The train stopped on account of the typhoon.

13 NI に
1. Indicates where a person or thing is: “in, at, on.”
a) Indicates a concrete place.
山田先生は、今図曞通にいらっしゃいたす。
Yamada-sensei wa, ima tosho-kan ni irasshaimasu.
Professor Yamada is in the library now.
電話垳は机の䞊にありたす。
Denwa-chō wa tsukue no ue ni arimasu.
The phone book is on the desk.
b) Indicates an abstract place.
課長は今䌚議に出垭しおいたす。
Kachō wa ima kaigi ni shusseki shite imasu.
The section chief is now in conference.
圌は今でも挔劇界に君臚しおいたす。
Kare wa ima de mo engeki-kai ni kunrin shite imasu.
Even now he rules over [dominates] the theatrical world.
2. Indicates the location of an action: “in, at.”
Note: In contrast to this use of ni, de (#12, no. 1) is used to indicate
a one-time or short-term action.
a) Used with certain “non-action” verbs, which imply that the subject
is permanently located in the place of action.

山田さんは珟圚四谷に䜏んでいたす。
Yamada-san wa genzai Yotsuya ni sunde imasu.
Yamada lives in Yotsuya at present.
寺田さんは新宿の銀行に勀めおいたす。
Terada-san wa Shinjuku no ginkō ni tsutomete imasu.
Terada works (is working) at a bank in Shinjuku.
Note: The verbs hataraku and shigoto o suru (to work) are
preceded by de.
b) Used with verbs that indicate that an action has taken (or is to
take) place and the resulting condition is (or will be) static. The last
sentence exemplifies the parenthetical definition.
あのいすに座っお本を読んでいる人は、誰ですか。
Ano isu ni suwatte hon o yonde iru hito wa, dare desu ka.
Who is the person sitting in that chair and reading a book?
山の䞊に雪が積もっおいたすね。
Yama no ue ni yuki ga tsumotte imasu ne.
Snow is piled up on top of the mountain, isn’t it. / There is snow on
the mountaintop, isn’t there.
すみたせんが、壁に掛かっおいる私のコヌトを取っおくれたすか。
Sumimasen ga, kabe ni kakatte iru watashi no kōto o totte
kuremasu ka.
Excuse me, but would you get my coat hanging on the wall?
新聞は机の䞊に眮いお䞋さい。
Shinbun wa tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai.
Please put the newspaper on the desk.

3. Indicates time: “at, on, in; every, per.”
a) Indicates the specific time at which something takes place.
䌚瀟は時に始たりたす。
Kaisha wa kuji ni hajimarimasu.
Work [the office] begins at nine o’clock.
月曜日に倧阪ぞ行きたす。
Getsuyōbi ni Ōsaka e ikimasu.
I’m going to Osaka on Monday.
b) Indicates the interval of time during which something takes place.
週間に床テニスをしたす。
Isshūkan ni ichido tenisu o shimasu.
I play tennis once a week.
このバスは30分おきに来たす。
Kono basu wa sanjippun oki ni kimasu.
This bus comes every thirty minutes.
4. Indicates movement from a larger to a smaller place (e.g., from a
train platform into a train, or from the lay world into a religious
organization): “in, into.”
Note: Contrast with o (#18, no. 6).
a) Indicates movement from larger to smaller physical place.
東京駅の前でバスに乗っお䞋さい。
Tōkyō-eki no mae de basu ni notte kudasai.
Please board the bus in front of Tokyo station.

オフィスに入ったら、タバコは吞わないで䞋さい。
Ofisu ni haittara, tabako wa suwanai de kudasai.
Please don’t smoke after entering the office. / Please don’t smoke
inside the office.
b) Indicates movement from larger to smaller abstract place.
去幎枡蟺さんは歎史孊䌚に入った。
Kyonen Watanabe-san wa rekishi-gakkai ni haitta.
Last year Watanabe joined a historical society.
あなたはがくの倢の䞭に䜕床も出おきたした。
Anata wa boku no yume no naka ni nando mo dete kimashita.
You have appeared in my dreams any number of times.
5. Indicates movement toward a place: “to.”
Note: E (#14, no. 1) can also be used here.
アメリカに行きたい。
America ni ikitai.
I want to go to America.
ゞョンさんは銀行に行きたしたよ。
Jon-san wa ginkō ni ikimashita yo.
John went to the bank, you know.
6. Indicates the object of an action: “to.”
Note: In this usage, e may not be used.
a) Used after a noun. The distinction between this usage and that in
no. 5 is that here the noun implies an action (e.g., going shopping,

seeing Kabuki).
買い物に行きたす。
Kaimono ni ikimasu.
I’m going shopping.
明日は歌舞䌎に行く぀もりです。
Ashita wa kabuki ni iku tsumori desu.
I plan to go to [see] Kabuki tomorrow.
b) Used after the base of a -masu verb.
もうお昌ですから、食事をしに行きたせんか。
Mō ohiru desu kara, shokuji o shi ni ikimasen ka.
Since it’s noon already, shall we go to eat lunch?
朚䞋さんは友達を迎えに成田たで出かけたした。
Kinoshita-san wa tomodachi o mukae ni Narita made
dekakemashita.
Kinoshita went out to Narita [Airport] to meet [pick up] a friend.
7. Indicates the recipient of an action (in English, equivalent to the
indirect object): “to, from.”
Note: When the meaning is “to,” e may replace ni; when the
meaning is “from,” kara may replace ni.
クリスマスには友達にプレれントをあげる。
Kurisumasu ni wa tomodachi ni purezento o ageru.
We give presents to our friends at Christmas.
クリスマスに友達にプレれントをもらった。
Kurisumasu ni tomodachi ni purezento o moratta.

I received a present from my friend at Christmas.
昚日フランスにいるナンシヌに手玙を出しおあげた。
Kinō Furansu ni iru Nanshī ni tegami o dashite ageta.
Yesterday I sent a letter to Nancy in France.
8. Indicates the result of a change or an impending change.
ゞョンさんは倧孊を卒業しお、医者になった。
Jon-san wa daigaku o sotsugyō shite, isha ni natta.
John graduated from university and became a doctor.
このケヌキを぀に分けお䞋さい。
Kono kēki o mittsu ni wakete kudasai.
Please divide this cake into three [parts].
枡蟺さんは仕事のしすぎで病気になった。
Watanabe-san wa shigoto no shisugi de byōki ni natta.
Watanabe become ill from overwork.
9. Indicates a condition already in existence (usually followed by
natte iru and equivalent to the English “to be”).
この建物の右偎が教宀になっおいたす。
Kono tatemono no migigawa ga kyōshitsu ni natte imasu.
The right side of this building is a classroom.
ホテルの前がビヌチになっおいたす。
Hoteru no mae ga bīchi ni natte imasu.
In front of the hotel is a beach. (Lit., The front of the hotel is a
beach.)

10. Indicates the agent of a passive verb (the person or thing
performing the action): “by.”
電車の䞭で、すりにお金を取られた。
Densha no naka de, suri ni okane o torateta.
My money was taken by a pickpocket in the train.
家に垰る途䞭で雚に降られた。
Ie ni kaeru tochū de ame ni furareta.
On my way home I got rained on. (Lit., I was fallen on by the rain.)
11. Indicates the person(s) made to do something in a causative
sentence.
先生は孊生に挢字を曞かせたした。
Sensei wa gakusei ni kanji o kakasemashita.
The teacher had the students write kanji.
子䟛たちに本を読たせるこずはずおも倧切だ。
Kodomo-tachi ni hon o yomaseru koto wa totemo taisetsu da.
It is very important to have children read books.
12. Indicates the agent of a causative-passive verb (the person or
thing performing the action): “by.”
孊生は先生に挢字を曞かされたした。
Gakusei wa sensei ni kanji o kakasaremashita.
The students were made to write kanji by the teacher.
私は子䟛のずき、母に嫌いな物も食べさせられたした。
Watashi wa kodomo no toki, haha ni kirai na mono mo tabesase -
raremashita.

When I was a child, I was made to eat even things I disliked by my
mother (my mother made me eat food I didn’t like).
*13. Joins nouns (usually three or more): “and.”
Note: This usage of ni is equivalent to to (#6, I-1), but is more
commonly found in writing.
その䌚議に出垭した人は、䞭囜人に、韓囜人に、日本人だった。
Sono kaigi ni shusseki shita hito wa, Chūgoku-jin ni , Kankoku-jin
ni , Nihon-jin datta.
The people attending the conference were Chinese, Koreans, and
Japanese.
パヌティヌの飲物は、日本酒に、りむスキヌに、ワむンでした。
Pātī no nomimono wa, Nihon-shu ni , uisukī ni , wain deshita.
The drinks [available] at the party were sake, whiskey, and wine.
*14. Indicates a pair of people or things that are commonly
mentioned together: “and.”
ロメオにゞュリ゚ット。
Romeo ni Jurietto.
Romeo and Juliet.
富士山に芞者。
Fuji-san ni geisha.
Mt. Fuji and geisha (a hackneyed phrase in reference to Japan).
*15. Indicates the basis on which, or means by which, an action takes
place (usually used with the verbs motozuku (to be based on) and
yoru (owing to).

あの映画は有名な小説に基づいお䜜られたした。
Ano eiga wa yūmei na shōsetsu ni motozuite tsukuraremashita.
That movie was [made] based on a famous novel.
テレビの普及によっお、倖囜の様子がよくわかるようになった。
Terebi no fukyū ni yotte, gaikoku no yōsu ga yoku wakaru yō ni
natta.
Thanks to the spread [owing to the spread] of television, we [now]
have a better understanding of conditions in foreign countries.

14 E ぞ
Note: In both of the usages below, ni may replace e, except when e is
followed by no (as in the last sentence of no. 2)
1. Indicates a direction or goal, or a destination toward which one is
moving or at which one has arrived: “to.”
い぀京郜ぞ行きたすか。
Itsu Kyōto e ikimasu ka.
When are you going to Kyoto?
谷口さんは昚日アメリカぞ出発したした。
Taniguchi-san wa kinō Amerika e shuppatsu shimashita.
Taniguchi left for the United States yesterday.
この飛行機は、時に成田空枯ぞ到着したした。
Kono hikō-ki wa, rokuji ni Narita kūkō e tōchaku shimashita.
This airplane arrived at Narita Airport at six o’clock.
2. Indicates the recipient of an action (in English, equivalent to the
indirect object): “to.”
倖囜にいる友達ぞ手玙を曞いた。
Gaikoku ni iru tomodachi e tegami o kaita.
I wrote a letter to a friend abroad.
倕方川田さんぞ電話をかけたが、いなかった。
YÅ«gata Kawada-san e denwa o kaketa ga, inakatta.
I telephoned Kawada in the evening, but he wasn’t there.

川田さんぞの電話があったのは䜕時でしたか。
Kawada-san e no denwa ga atta no wa nanji deshita ka.
What time did that phone call come for Kawada?

15 KARA から
I. Follows nouns and the -te form of verbs: “from.”
1. After nouns, indicates the time at which something begins: “from,
at.”
銀行は時から開いおいたす。
Ginkō wa kuji kara aite imasu.
Banks are open from nine o’clock. / Banks open at nine.
日本語のクラスは、時から時たでです。
Nihon-go no kurasu wa, ichiji kara yoji made desu.
Japanese class lasts from one to four o’clock.
2. After nouns, indicates the place from which something begins:
“from, at.”
マラ゜ンはここから出発したす。
Marason wa koko kara shuppatsu shimasu.
The marathon starts [from] here.
瀟長はパリから飛行機でスペむンぞ行きたす。
Shachō wa Pari kara hikō-ki de Supein e ikimasu.
The company president will go from Paris to Spain by plane.
*3. Certain idiomatic usages in which figurative references to place
are made.
新聞をすみからすみたで読んだ。

Shinbun o sumi kara sumi made yonda.
I read the newspaper from beginning to end. (Lit.,
from corner to
corner.)
女の人の目から芋れば、日本にはただ差別がたくさんある。
Onna no hito no me kara mireba, Nihon ni wa mada sabetsu ga
takusan aru.
From a woman’s viewpoint, there is still a lot of discrimination in
Japan. (Lit., Looking from a woman’s eyes
)
4. After the -te form of verbs, indicates that an action begins
immediately after the previous one ends: “after.”
昚日私は仕事が終わっおから買物をしたした。
Kinō watashi wa shigoto ga owatte kara kaimono o shimashita.
Yesterday I went shopping after finishing work.
明日の倜、食事をしおから映画を芋たせんか。
Ashita no yoru, shokuji o shite kara eiga o mimasen ka.
How about seeing a movie tomorrow night after [having] dinner?
5. After the -te form of verbs, indicates the passage of time: “since,
for.”
山田さんが倧孊を卒業しおから幎になりたす。
Yamada-san ga daigaku o sotsugyō shite kara gonen ni narimasu.
Five years have passed since Yamada graduated from college.
あの人が結婚しおから20幎だそうです。
Ano futari ga kekkon shite kara nijū-nen da sō desu.
I understand that it is twenty years since those two were married. / I
hear that those two have been married for twenty years.

6. Indicates materials used: “from.”
Note: Kara and de (#12, no. 3) are similar in usage. However, the
former tends to accompany materials that are the result of a
somewhat complex process, whereas the latter is generally used with
materials that retain, or appear to retain, their original state, such as
wood, rock, leather, paper, and glass.
ワむンはぶどうから䜜りたす。
Wain wa budō kara tsukurimasu.
Wine is made from grapes.
豆腐は䜕から䜜るか知っおいたすか。
Tōfu wa nani kara tsukuru ka shitte imasu ka.
Do you know what tofu is made from?
7. Indicates the agent of a passive verb (the person or thing
performing the action): “by.”
Note: The agent of a passive verb is usually indicated by ni, but kara
may replace ni, with no basic change in meaning, when (1) the noun
preceding kara can be perceived more as the source of an action than
as its agent and (2) when kara makes the meaning clearer by
avoiding a repetition of ni (as in the first example below). Examples
of other verbs in conjunction with which kara can replace ni are ai
suru
(to love), kiku (to ask), meirei suru (to order), shikaru (to
scold), shiraberu (to examine).
私は倧䜿からパヌティヌに招埅されたした。
Watashi wa taishi kara pātī ni shōtai saremashita.
I was invited to a party by the ambassador.
昚日課長から叱られた。

Kinō kachō kara shikarareta.
I was scolded by the section chief yesterday.
II. Follows verbs and adjectives to indicate a cause
or reason: “since, because.”

1. Indicates a cause or reason: “since, because.”
Note: Kara can be replaced by no de (#26) in this usage. In general,
(1) kara indicates a more subjective reason, no de a more objective
one; and (2) no de is softer and more polite than kara.
忙しかったから私たちは公園ぞ行きたせんでした。
Isogashikatta kara watashi-tachi wa kōen e ikimasen deshita.
We didn’t go to the park because we were too busy.
あのレストランは安いからい぀も混んでいたす。
Ano resutoran wa yasui kara itsu mo konde imasu.
That restaurant is inexpensive, so it’s always crowded.
*2. Used trailingly at the end of a sentence, indicates censure or
warning to the listener: “so you had better.”
そんなこずばかり蚀っおいるずみんなに嫌われるから  
Sonna koto bakari itte iru to minna ni kirawareru kara 

If you say only those kinds of things, you’re going to be disliked by
everyone [so stop saying them]. / If you keep saying things like
that, people aren’t going to like it.
勉匷しないず詊隓に合栌できないから  
Benkyō shinai to shiken ni gōkaku dekinai kara 

If you don’t study, you won’t be able to pass the exam [so you had
better study].

16 MADE たで
1. Indicates a time limitation for actions or events (often paired with
kara): “until, till, to.”
この䌚瀟の瀟員は時から時たで働きたす。
Kono kaisha no shain wa kuji kara goji made hatarakimasu.
The employees of this company work from nine o’clock till five
o’clock.
このデパヌトは、土曜日ず日曜日は時たでです。
Kono depāto wa, doyōbi to nichiyōbi wa hachiji made desu.
This department store is open until eight o’clock on Saturdays and
Sundays.
2. Indicates the place to which an action extends (often paired with
kara): “to.”
この飛行機は東京からホノルルたで行きたす。
Kono hikō-ki wa Tōkyō kara Honoruru made ikimasu.
This plane goes from Tokyo to Honolulu.
ここから京郜たで䜕時間かかりたすか。
Koko kara Kyōto made nan-jikan kakarimasu ka.
How long does it take to get from here to Kyoto?
3. Indicates the degree of a condition by citing an example (e.g., it is
not just cold, it is so cold that my glasses have frozen over): “even,
so
that.”

子䟛だけでなく倧人たで、そのゲヌムを楜しんだ。
Kodomo dake de naku otona made , sono gēmu o tanoshinda.
Not only the children but even the adults enjoyed [playing] that
game.
その日山の䞊はずおも寒くお、倕方には雪たで降っおきた。
Sono hi yama no ue wa totemo samukute, yūgata ni wa yuki made
futte kita.
The top of the mountain was very cold that day; it even started
snowing in the evening. / The mountaintop was so cold that day
that it even started to snow in the evening.
*4. Indicates an extreme condition.
斉藀さんは、あの男の人ず結婚できなければ死のうずたで思い぀め
たそうです。
Saitō-san wa, ano otoko no hito to kekkon dekinakereba shinō to
made omoitsumeta sō desu.
Saito was apparently even contemplating suicide if she were unable
to marry the man.
その䞡芪は子䟛の病気が治るなら、党財産を捚おおもいいずたで考
えおいた。
Sono ryōshin wa kodomo no byōki ga naoru nara, zen-zaisan o
sutete mo ii to made kangaete ita.
If their child would only get well, the parents thought that they
would even sacrifice all they owned. / The child’s parents were
[even] prepared to sacrifice all they owned if only he/she would
recover.
*5. At the end of a sentence, indicates a limitation or extent: “that is
all.”
今日はここたで。

Kyō wa koko made .
That’s all for today. (Lit., As for today, up to here.)
ずりあえずご報告たで。
Toriaezu gohōkoku made .
For your reference. (Lit., For the moment, as far as a report.)
*6. In the form made mo nai (which follows verb roots), emphasizes
extent or degree; the complete phrase may be translated: “there is no
need to.”
明日のパヌティヌにはわざわざ行くたでもない。
Ashita no pātī ni wa wazawaza iku made mo nai.
There is no need to go out of one’s way [to make a special effort] to
attend tomorrow’s party. / Tomorrow’s party is hardly worth going
to.
蚀うたでもないこずですが、この䌚瀟の経営状態は、かなり悪化し
おいたす。
Iu made mo nai koto desu ga, kono kaisha no keiei-jōtai wa, kanari
akka shite imasu.
Needless to say [it goes without saying that], this company’s
operations have deteriorated considerably.

17 NO の
I. Used between two nouns, indicating that the first
possesses or is modifying the second; also used in
place of ga
to indicate the subject in modifying
clauses.

1. Indicates possession: “’s.”
これは高朚さんの傘です。
Kore wa Takagi-san no kasa desu.
This is Takagi’s umbrella.
それが䜐藀さんの車です。
Sore ga Satō-san no kuruma desu.
That is Satō’s car.
Note: If the context is understood, the second noun can be omitted:
それが䜐藀さんのです。
Sore ga Satō-san no desu.
That is Satō’s.
2. Indicates position or location.
机の䞊、いすの䞋、孊校の前、この建物の埌ろ。
Tsukue no ue, isu no shita, gakkō no mae, kono tatemono no
ushiro.
The top of the desk [i.e., on the desk]; under the chair; the [area in]
front of the school; behind this building.

3. Indicates that the first noun is modifying the second in terms of
kind or category.
山田先生は英語の先生です。
Yamada-sensei wa Eigo no sensei desu.
Yamada is a teacher of English [an English teacher].
この孊校は料理の孊校です。
Kono gakkō wa ryōri no gakkō desu.
This school is a cooking school.
4. Indicates that two nouns are in apposition.
倧孊孊長の今井氏が挔説をしおいたす。
K daigaku gakuchō no Imai-shi ga enzetsu o shite imasu.
Mr. Imai, the president of K University, is making a speech.
こちらが䜐山さんのお姉さんの千銙子さんです。
Kochira ga Sayama-san no onēsan no Chikako-san desu.
This is Chikako, Sayama’s elder sister.
5. Used to replace ga to indicate the subject of a clause modifying a
noun.
これは坂本さんの描いた油絵です。
Kore wa Sakamoto-san no kaita aburae desu.
This is the oil painting that Sakamoto painted.
昚日あなたの話しおいたレストランはどこですか。
Kinō anata no hanashite ita resutoran wa doko desu ka.
Where is the restaurant you were talking about yesterday?
II. Used to nominalize verbs and adjectives.

1. Simple nominalizer: “-ing, what.”
倩気が悪いですから、ドラむブに行くのはやめたしょう。
Tenki ga warui desu kara, doraibu ni iku no wa yamemashō.
Since the weather is bad, let’s call off going for a drive.
倖囜語を孊ぶのは、むずかしいですね。
Gaikoku-go o manabu no wa, muzukashii desu ne.
Learning a foreign language is difficult, isn’t it.
圌女が欲しいのは、新しいピアノです。
Kanojo ga hoshii no wa, atarashii piano desu.
What she wants is a new piano.
2. Used as a nominalizer before verbs of perception (e.g., mieru [to
be visible], kikoeru [to be audible]).
このビルの屋䞊から、車が走っおいるのがよく芋えたす。
Kono biru no okujō kara, kuruma ga hashitte iru no ga yoku
miemasu.
From the roof [top] of this building, you can clearly see the cars
going by. (Lit.,
the driving cars are easily visible.)
女の人が歌っおいるのが聞こえたすね。
Onna no hito ga utatte iru no ga kikoemasu. ne.
You can hear a woman singing, can’t you. (Lit., A woman’s singing is
audible
)
III. Used at the end of sentences.
1. Indicates a question (colloquial usage).
䌚瀟、本圓にやめるの。

Kaisha, hontō ni yameru no .
You really quitting the company?
明日は䜕時に出かけるの。
Ashita wa nanji ni dekakeru no .
What time you leaving tomorrow?
2. Imparts a softer tone to a statement (usually used by women).
私、来月フランスに留孊するの。
Watashi, raigetsu Furansu ni ryūgaku suru no .
I will be going to France to study next month.
土曜日はコンサヌトに行きたいず思っおいるの。
Doyōbi wa konsāto ni ikitai to omotte iru no .
I’m thinking I’d like to go to a concert on Saturday.
*3. Indicates a mild command.
そんなこずいわないの。
Sonna koto iwanai no .
Don’t say such things. / Don’t say that.
あなたは黙っおいればいいの。
Anata wa damatte ireba ii no .
You just keep quiet. (Lit., As for you, if you keep silent, it’s good.)

18 O を
1. Indicates the object of an action (direct object).
倕べは映画を芋た。
YÅ«be wa eiga o mita.
I saw a movie yesterday evening.
原田さんは手玙を曞いおいる。
Harada-san wa tegami o kaite iru.
Harada is writing a letter.
2. Indicates the direct object of a passive verb.
私は昚日、電車の䞭でお金ずパスポヌトを盗たれたした。
Watashi wa kinō, densha no naka de okane to pasupōto o
nusumare mashita.
I had my money and passport stolen in the train yesterday.
圌女は犬に手を嚙たれた。
Kanojo wa inu ni te o kamareta.
She had her hand bitten by a dog.
3. Indicates the person or thing made to do something in a caus ative
sentence.
その政治家は、財界人のパヌティヌに秘曞を出垭させた。
Sono seiji-ka wa, zaikai-jin no pātī ni hisho o shusseki saseta.
That politician had her secretary attend a business leaders’ party.

郚長は郚䞋を出匵させた。
Buchō wa buka o shutchō saseta.
The department head sent a subordinate on a business trip.
4. Indicates a specific occupation or position (usually followed by
suru).
山本さんのお父さんは、医者をしおいる。
Yamamoto-san no otōsan wa, isha o shite iru.
Yamamoto’s father is a physician.
私の兄は、新聞蚘者をしおいたす。
Watashi no ani wa, shinbun-kisha o shite imasu.
My elder brother is a newspaper reporter.
5. Used with verbs indicating wishes or desires ending in -tai or -
tagaru.
コヌヒヌを飲みたいんです。
Kōhī o nomitai-n desu.
I want to drink some coffee.
ゞョンさんはおすしを食べたがっおいたすよ。
Jon-san wa osushi o tabetagatte imasu yo.
John feels like eating some sushi.
6. Indicates movement from a smaller to a larger place in both
concrete and abstract senses.
Note: (1) Contrast with ni (#13, no. 4). (2) Although kara sounds
correct from the standpoint of English, it should not be substituted
for o in this usage.

a) Movement from a smaller physical space to a larger physical place
(with the larger place usually implicit).
毎日新宿駅で地䞋鉄を降りたす。
Mainichi Shinjuku-eki de chikatetsu o orimasu.
I get off the subway at Shinjuku Station every day.
山本さんは倕方時半に䌚瀟を出たす。
Yamamoto-san wa yūgata goji-han ni kaisha o demasu.
Yamamoto leaves the office at 5:30 in the evening.
b) Movement from a smaller space in an abstract sense to a larger
abstract space (e.g., from school life into society at large).
銖盞は早皲田倧孊を卒業した。
Shushō wa Waseda daigaku o sotsugyō shita.
The prime minister graduated from Waseda University.
沖氏は、70歳になった幎に経枈界を匕退した。
Oki-shi wa, nanajussai ni natta toshi ni keizai-kai o intai shita.
Mr. Oki retired from the business world when [in the year in which]
he turned seventy.
7. When used with verbs of motion, indicates the place of the motion.
車で新しい橋を枡った。
Kuruma de atarashii hashi o watatta.
I crossed over the new bridge by car.
私の囜では、車は道の巊偎を走りたす。
Watashi no kuni de wa, kuruma wa michi no hidarigawa o hashi -
rimasu.
In my country, cars drive on the left side of the road.

このバスは、デパヌトの前を通りたすか。
Kono basu wa, depāto no mae o tōrimasu ka.
Does this bus pass in front of the department store?
8. Indicates the starting point of an action.
瀟長は火曜日の午埌時に成田を出発したす。
Shachō wa kayōbi no gogo rokuji ni Narita o shuppatsu shimasu.
The company president will leave from Narita at 6 P.M. on Tuesday.
この電車は時に東京駅を出たすから遅れないで来お䞋さい。
Kono densha wa hachiji ni Tōkyō-eki o demasu kara okurenaide
kite kudasai.
This train leaves Tokyo Station at eight o’clock, so please don’t be
late.

19 KURAI (GURAI) くらいぐらい
1. Indicates an approximate amount or extent; in contrast with hodo
and bakari, kurai denotes an approximate quantity without
connoting its upper or lower limits: “approximately, about.”
Note: Hodo (#20, no. 1) and bakari (#21, no. 1) may replace kurai
in this usage.
ここからその孊校たで車で30分ぐらいかかりたす。
Koko kara sono gakkō made kuruma de sanjippun gurai
kakarimasu.
It takes about thirty minutes by car to get to the school from here.
昚日のパヌティヌに来た人は、100人ぐらいだったず思いたす。
Kinō no pātī ni kita hito wa, hyakunin gurai datta to omoimasu.
I think about 100 people came to the party yesterday.
2. Indicates the extent of an action or condition after a specific
example is given: “so
that, to the extent that.”
Note: Hodo (#20, no. 3) may replace kurai/gurai in this usage.
安田さんの旅行の話は面癜くお、時間のた぀のも忘れたくらいだっ
た。
Yasuda-san no ryokō no hanashi wa omoshirokute, jikan no tatsu
no mo wasureta kurai datta.
Yasuda’s stories of her trip were so interesting that we lost track of
time.

恥ずかしくお穎があったら入りたいぐらいだった。
Hazukashikute ana ga attara hairitai gurai datta.
I was so embarrassed that I felt like crawling in a hole. (Lit.,
if there
had been a hole, I would have wanted to go in it.)
3. Indicates a comparison: “as
as.”
Note: Hodo (#20, no. 2) may replace kurai/gurai in this usage.
山䞋さんの新しい家の庭は、ゎルフ堎ぐらいの倧きさだ。
Yamashita-san no atarashii ie no niwa wa, gorufu-jō gurai no
ōkisa da.
The garden at Yamashita’s new house is as big as a golf course.
自分の家くらい、いい堎所はない。
Jibun no ie kurai , ii basho wa nai.
There’s no place as nice as one’s own home.

20 HODO ほど
1. Indicates an approximate amount or approximate maximum
extent; in contrast with kurai and bakari, hodo tends to stress
approximate upper limit: “approximately, about.”
Note: Kurai (#19, no.1) and bakari (#21, no. 1) may replace hodo in
this usage, although hodo is somewhat more formal.
来月は、䞀週間ほど九州ぞ出匵したす。
Raigetsu wa, isshūkan hodo Kyūshū e shutchō shimasu.
Next month I’ll be going on a business trip to Kyushu for as long as a
week.
今床の事故で、100人ほどの人が死んだそうです。
Kondo no jiko de, hyakunin hodo no hito ga shinda sō desu.
I hear that some 100 people died in this traffic accident.
2. Indicates a comparison (used only in negative sentences): “as
as.”
Note: Kurai may replace hodo in this usage, but hodo is more
common.
今幎は去幎ほど寒くないです。
Kotoshi wa kyonen hodo samuku nai desu.
This year is not as cold as last year.
あの人ほど頭のいい人はいないでしょう。
Ano hito hodo atama no ii hito wa inai deshō.
No one has as good a head as he has. / No one is as smart as he is.

3. Indicates the extent of an action or condition by citing a specific
example: “so
that, to the extent that.”
Note: This usage is similar to kurai (#19, no. 2).
今日は勉匷ができないほど疲れた。
Kyō wa benkyō ga dekinai hodo tsukareta.
Today I’m so tired that I can’t study.
詊隓に合栌したので、うれしくお眠れないほどです。
Shiken ni gōkaku shita no de, ureshikute nemurenai hodo desu.
Since I passed the examination, I’m so happy that I can’t sleep.
4. Used in the form V-ba + V hodo: “the more
the more.”
北ぞ行けば行くほど寒くなりたす。
Kita e ikeba iku hodo samuku narimasu.
The further north you go, the colder it gets.
幎をずればずるほど、䜓が匱くなりたす。
Toshi o toreba toru hodo , karada ga yowaku narimasu.
The older you get, the weaker your body becomes.

21 BAKARI ばかり
Note: More informal forms of bakari are bakkari, bakashi, and
bakkashi.
1. Indicates an approximate amount or extent; in contrast to kurai
and hodo, bakari tends (but only tends) to focus on the smallness of
the amount: “approximately, about.”
Note: Kurai (#19, no. 1) and hodo (#20, no. 1) may replace bakari in
this usage.
明日から日ばかり旅行に行っおきたす。
Ashita kara futsuka bakari ryokō ni itte kimasu.
Beginning tomorrow, I’ll be making a trip for a day or two. /
Tomorrow I’ll be leaving on a trip for a couple of days.
䞇円ばかり貞しおいただけたせんか。
Ichi-man-en bakari kashite itadakemasen ka.
Could you lend me, say, something like ¥10,000?
2. “Not only
but also.”
Note: While dake (#22, no. 4) may replace bakari in this usage,
bakari is slightly more emphatic.
原田さんはピアノばかりでなく、歌もうたいんですよ。
Harada-san wa piano bakari de naku, uta mo umai-n desu yo.
Harada is good not only at the piano but also at singing.

英語ばかりでなく、フランス語も勉匷したいんです。
Eigo bakari de naku, Furansu-go mo benkyō shitai-n desu.
I want to study not only English but French as well.
3. Emphasizes the singularity of the immediately preceding word:
“only, nothing but.”
Note: (1) Since the position of bakari in the sentence affects the
meaning, several versions of one sentence have been given to
exemplify the difference. In loose usage, however, bakari tends to
shift from the word it is intended to modify, leaving the meaning to
be gathered from context. (2) In this usage, bakari contains a degree
of disapproval which dake does not.
課長はこの頃りむスキヌばかり飲んでいたすね。
Kachō wa konogoro uisukī bakari nonde imasu ne.
The section chief is drinking nothing but whiskey these days.
課長はこの頃りむスキヌを飲んでばかりいたすね。
Kachō wa konogoro uisukī o nonde bakari imasu ne.
The section chief is doing nothing but drink whiskey these days.
課長はこの頃りむスキヌ飲んでいるばかりですね。
Kachō wa konogoro uisukī o nonde iru bakari desu ne.
All the section chief does these days is drink whiskey.
テレビばかり芋おいるず目を悪くしたすよ。
Terebi bakari mite iru to me o waruku shimasu yo.
If all you do is watch TV, you’ll ruin your eyes. / If you watch TV all
the time, you’ll ruin your eyes.
Note: Here, terebi o mite iru bakari da to me o waruku shimasu yo
is also possible (and grammatically more acceptable), but the

example above is more common and has the same meaning.
4. Used after the -ta form of verbs: “just.”
Note: If tokoro (#38, no. 1) replaces bakari in this usage, the
meaning is similar, but bakari shows more emphasis.
父は今垰っおきたばかりです。
Chichi wa ima kaette kita bakari desu.
My father just now came home [just got home].
順ちゃんは、ご飯を食べたばかりなのに、もうおや぀を欲しがっお
いたす。
Jun-chan wa, gohan o tabeta bakari na no ni, mō oyatsu o
hoshigatte imasu.
Even though Jun has just eaten a meal [just finished eating], he
already wants a snack.
*5. Emphasizes a reason or cause in the phrase bakari ni: “(just,
merely) because, for the simple reason.”
枡蟺さんはステレオを買いたいばかりに、䞀生懞呜にアルバむトを
しおいる。
Watanabe-san wa sutereo o kaitai bakari ni, isshō-kenmei ni
arubaito o shite iru.
Watanabe is working like a dog at his part-time job for the simple
reason that he wants to buy a stereo. / Watanabe wants to buy a
stereo so badly that he is working for all he’s worth at his part-time
job.
山田さんは政治家ず結婚したばかりに、苊劎しおいる。
Yamada-san wa seiji-ka to kekkon shita bakari ni, kurō shite iru.

Simply because Yamada married a politician, she is having a hard
time. / Just because she married [happened to marry] a politician,
Yamada is finding the going tough.

22 DAKE だけ
1. Indicates an absolute quantitative limit with the connotation that
the amount is small: “only, just.”
昚日クラスに来た孊生は、人だけでした。
Kinō kurasu ni kita gakusei wa, gonin dake deshita.
Only five students came to class yesterday.
今日は時間だけテレビを芋たした。
Kyō wa ichi-jikan dake terebi o mimashita.
Today I watched TV for only an hour.
2. Indicates an extent or amount: “as
as.”
どうぞお奜きなだけお飲み䞋さい。
Dōzo osuki na dake onomi kudasai.
Please drink as much as you wish.
できるだけ早く行きたす。
Dekiru dake hayaku ikimasu.
I’ll go [be on my way, leave, get there] as soon as I can. (Lit., To the
extent that I can, I will go quickly.)
*3. In the phrases dake ni, dake atte, and dake no koto wa aru,
indicates the cause or precondition for a certain result or state of
affairs (when the result meets expectations, does not meet
expectations, or is considered a natural outcome).
a) When the result meets expectations and is therefore worth the
effort of achieving: “
was worthwhile.”

あの倧孊に合栌できたから、勉匷しただけのこずはあった。
Ano daigaku ni gōkaku dekita kara, benkyō shita dake no koto wa
atta.
I passed [the entrance examination to] that university, so the
studying I did was worth it.
寺田さんは私のプレれントを喜んでくれたので、無理しお買っただ
けのこずはあった。
Terada-san wa watashi no purezento o yorokonde kureta no de,
muri shite katta dake no koto wa atta.
Since Terada was happy [pleased] with my present, it was worth all
the trouble I went to in buying it.
b) When the result does not meet expectations and is therefore
discouraging: “given the fact that.”
圌は圌女に倢䞭だっただけに、倱恋のショックはずおも倧きかっ
た。
Kare wa kanojo ni muchū datta dake ni, shitsuren no shokku wa
totemo ōkikatta.
Given the fact that he was head over heels in love, losing her was a
big blow.
䞀生懞呜に勉匷しただけに、䞍合栌の通知を受け取ったずき、山本
さんは非垞にがっかりした。
Isshō-kenmei ni benkyō shita dake ni, fu-gōkaku no tsūchi o
uketotta toki, Yamamoto-san wa hijō ni gakkari shita.
Since he had studied so hard, Yamamoto was extremely disappointed
when he received notification that he had failed. / Given the fact
that he had studied so hard, Yamamoto was crushed when he
learned that he had not been accepted.
c) When the outcome is seen as a natural result of foregoing
conditions: “as you might expect.”

䜐藀さんは英囜の倧孊で勉匷しただけあっお、英語がうたいです
ね。
Satō-san wa Eikoku no daigaku de benkyō shita dake atte, Eigo ga
umai desu ne.
As you might expect from his having studied at a university in
England, Sato’s English is quite good.
ゞョンさんは、京郜に15幎も䜏んでいるだけあっお、お寺のこずを
よく知っおいたす。
Jon-san wa, Kyōto ni jūgo-nen mo sunde iru dake atte, otera no
koto o yoku shitte imasu.
As you might expect from his having lived in Kyoto for fifteen years,
John is very knowledgeable about temples. / Since John has lived
in Kyoto for fifteen years, it is not surprising that he knows a lot
about temples.
䞀流のピアニストだけに、すばらしい挔奏をしたすね。
Ichiryū no pianisuto dake ni, subarashii ensō o shimasu ne.
As you might expect of a first-rate pianist, he plays wonderfully,
doesn’t he.
ここは北海道だけに、寒さが厳しいです。
Koko wa Hokkaidō dake ni, samusa ga kibishii desu.
As you might expect from this being Hokkaido, it is terribly cold. / It
is terribly cold here in Hokkaido, as you might expect.
4. “Not only
but also.”
Note: While bakari (#21, no. 2) may replace dake in this usage, it is
slightly more emphatic.
原田さんはピアノだけでなく、歌もうたいんですよ。
Harada-san wa piano dake de naku, uta mo umai-n desu yo.

Harada is good not only at the piano but also at singing.
英語だけでなくフランス語も勉匷したいんです。
Eigo dake de naku Furansu-go mo benkyō shitai-n desu.
I want to study not only English but French as well.

23 SHIKA しか
Note: Shika is used only with negative verbs. It may combine with
(follow) dake, nomi, and kiri for further emphasis.
1. After nouns, indicates there is nothing more than the quantity
specified, with the connotation that the quantity is small or
unsatisfactory: “only, nothing but, merely.”
あの店には、この雑誌しかありたせんでした。
Ano mise ni wa, kono zasshi shika arimasen deshita.
This was the only magazine at that store. / The only magazine that
store had was this one.
今は、1300円きりしか持っおいないから、ずおもフランス料理など
食べられないよ。
Ima wa sen-sanbyaku-en kiri shika motte inai kara, totemo
Furansu-ryōri nado taberarenai yo.
Since all I have at the moment is ¥1,300, there is no way I can [afford
to] eat French food.
*2. After verbs, indicates a limit to the action stipulated by the verb:
“there is no choice but, all one can do is.”
いやだけれど、出匵だから行くしかない。
Iya da keredo, shutchō da kara iku shika nai.
I don’t want to, but since it’s company business [lit., a business trip],
I can’t help but go [I have no choice].
このレポヌトは、明日たでだから、今日䞭に終わらせるしかない。

Kono repōto wa, ashita made da kara, kyō-jū ni owaraseru shika
nai.
Since this report is due tomorrow, I have no choice but to finish it
sometime today [will just to have to finish it sometime today].

24 NOMI のみ
*1. After nouns, indicates that there is nothing other than the
thing(s) stipulated : “only.”
Note: In this usage, nomi and dake have the same meaning, but
nomi is used more in writing than in the spoken language. Nomi can
be combined with (followed by) shika, as in the second sample
sentence below.
この䌚議には、぀の囜の代衚のみが出垭した。
Kono kaigi ni wa, yottsu no kuni no daihyō nomi ga shusseki shita.
The representatives of only four countries attended this conference.
以前、この倧孊には男性のみしか入れなかった。
Izen, kono daigaku ni wa dansei nomi shika hairenakatta.
In the past, only men were able to enter this university.
*2. Used in the form A nomi narazu B mo: “not only
but also.”
Note: This usage is essentially equivalent to bakari (#21, no. 2) and
dake (#22, no. 4), but is found more in the written than in the
spoken language.
この倧孊の文孊郚の孊生は、英語のみならずフランス語も勉匷しな
ければならない。
Kono daigaku no bungaku-bu no gakusei wa, Eigo nomi narazu
Furansu-go mo benkyō shinakereba naranai.
The students in the literature department of this university must
study not only English, but French as well.

シェヌクスピアは戯曲のみならず詩もたくさん曞いた。
Shēkusupia wa gikyoku nomi narazu shi mo takusan kaita.
Shakespeare wrote not only plays, but many poems as well.

25 KIRI きり
1. Used after nouns and verbs, indicates a “cutting-off” point, i.e., a
limit; may also be pronounced kkiri (っきり): “only.”
Note: Kiri means basically the same thing as dake (#22, no. 1) but is
a more colloquial usage. Shika may be used after kiri for emphasis.
あのおじいさんは、人きりで倧きな家に䜏んでいる。
Ano ojī-san wa, hitori kiri de ōki na ie ni sunde iru.
That old man lives alone [all by himself] in a big house.
その子䟛は、黙ったきりで䜕も蚀わなかった。
Sono kodomo wa, damatta kiri de nani mo iwanakatta.
The child just sat [stood, etc.] there, without saying a word. (Lit.,
That child, only keeping quiet, didn’t say anything.)
2. Used with a small number or amount to emphasize a negative
meaning; dake may replace kiri: “only.”
あず発車たで分きりだから、山本さんはずおも間に合わないだろ
う。
Ato hassha made nifun kiri da kara, Yamamoto-san wa totemo
ma-ni-awanai darō.
The train leaves in just two minutes, so it’s very unlikely that Yama -
moto will make it in time.
お金は䞇円きりしかないから、あのコンピュヌタヌを買うのは無
理だ。

Okane wa ichiman-en kiri shika nai kara, ano konpyūtā o kau no
wa muri da.
I have only ¥10,000 to my name, so there’s no way I can buy that
computer. / Since all I have is ¥10,000, there is no way I can afford
that computer.
3. Indicates the most recent incidence of something: “the last.”
アランさんからは、去幎クリスマス・カヌドが来たきりで、そのあ
ず手玙が来たせん。
Aran-san kara wa, kyonen kurisumasu-kādo ga kita kiri de, sono
ato tegami ga kimasen.
The last [I heard] from Allen was a Christmas card last year; since
then, no letters have come.
岞さんずは、先月のクラス䌚で䌚ったきりです。
Kishi-san to wa, sengetsu no kurasu kai de atta kiri desu.
The last [time] I saw Kishi was at last month’s class meeting.

26 NO DE ので
1. Indicates a cause or reason: “in that, since, because.”
Note: No de and kara (#15, II-1) differ in two ways: first, no de
usually indicates a more objective cause or reason, kara a more
subjective one; thus kara is often used in sentences involving
prohibitions, commands, and questions; second, in sentences
otherwise identical, no de lends a more polite tone.
車の事故があったので、道が混んでいたす。
Kuruma no jiko ga attano de , michi ga konde imasu.
Since there was a car accident, the roads are crowded.
雪がたくさん降ったので、電車が遅れるそうです。
Yuki ga takusan futta no de , densha ga okureru sō desu.
Because a lot of snow has fallen, it is said [they say, I hear] the train
is going to be late. / Because of all the snow, the train will be late, I
hear.
病気なので、旅行に行くのは無理です。
Byōki na no de , ryokō ni iku no wa muri desu.
Since I’m ill, taking a trip is out of the question.
Note: As in this example, da changes to na before no de.

27 MONO DE もので
1. Indicates a cause or reason: “in that, inasmuch as, given.”
Note: Mono de is more polite and formal than no de and kara.
東京は物䟡が高いもので、生掻が倧倉です。
Tōkyō wa bukka ga takai mono de , seikatsu ga taihen desu.
Since prices are high, life in Tokyo is difficult. / Prices in Tokyo being
high, it is difficult to make ends meet.
私は䜓が匱いもので、長い旅行は無理です。
Watashi wa karada ga yowai mono de , nagai ryokō wa muri
desu.
In that my constitution is weak [health is poor], long trips are out of
the question.

28 KEREDOMO けれども
Note: (1) More colloquial forms of keredomo are keredo, kedo, and
kedomo. Keredomo in all its forms lends a softer tone, and in its full
form (not the alternative forms) tends to be preceded by desu and
the -masu verb forms. (2) In each of the usages below, ga (#2, II-1, 2,
4, 5, 6) can replace keredomo and its more informal variations.
1. Used between two clauses to indicate that they are opposed in
meaning: “but, although.”
倩気予報で今日は雚は降らないず蚀ったんですけれども、倕方から
降っおきたしたね。
Tenki-yohō de kyō wa ame wa furanai to itta-n desu keredomo ,
yūgata kara futte kimashita ne.
They said on the weather report that it wouldn’t rain today, but it
began raining in the evening, didn’t it.
竹内さんに電話をかけたけれど留守でした。
Takeuchi-san ni denwa o kaketa keredo rusu deshita.
I called Takeuchi, but she was out.
2. Used at the end of a sentence, implies something that qualifies
what is actually stated: “well, yes, but
”
Note: This usage is essentially the same as that in no. 1, above,
except that here the second clause isn’t stated outright. (Words in
brackets below show only one of various imaginable contexts.)
たたには旅行にも行きたいず思っおいるんですけど  
Tama ni wa ryokō ni mo ikitai to omotte iru-n desu kedo


I’d really like to go on a trip once in a while
[but I don’t have the
time].
私はゎルフをしないわけではないんですけど  
Watashi wa gorufu o shinai wake de wa nai-n desu kedo

It’s not that I don’t play golf
[but I really don’t like it that much].
3. Indicates a preliminary remark.
ただ発車たで時間もありたすけど、どうしたしょうか。
Mada hassha made ichi-jikan mo arimasu kedo , dō shimashō ka.
There’s still an hour until [the train] departs, [so] what shall we do
[in the meanwhile]?
谷ですけど、知子さんいらっしゃいたすか。
Tani desu kedo , Tomoko-san irasshaimasu ka.
This [my name is] is Tani. Is Tomoko there?
4. Used at the end of a sentence, emphasizes the sense that the
speaker wants the event to come out as stated: “it would be nice if, I
hope.”
早く暖かくなるずいいんだけど  
Hayaku atatakaku naru to ii-n da kedo

It would be nice if it got warm soon. / I hope it gets warm soon.
もう少し倧きいのが欲しいんだけれど  
Mō sukoshi ōkii no ga hoshii-n da keredo

I’d like to have one that’s a little bigger. / I had hoped for something
a little larger.

29 TOKORO DE ずころで
Note: Tokoro de is always used after the -ta form of a verb. The
tense of this verb, however, is not necessarily past, but is determined
by the tense of the verb in the main clause.
*1. Between contrasting clauses, emphasizes that an extent, number,
or amount of something is less than expected: “even if, even though.”
Note: This usage is similar to -te mo (#4, no. 1), but the emphasis is
greater with tokoro de.
東京は雪が降ったずころで、そんなに積もるこずはありたせん。
Tōkyō wa yuki ga futta tokoro de , sonna ni tsumoru koto wa
arimasen.
Even though it snows in Tokyo, it never snows that much [never gets
that deep].
あの人ならいくら頑匵ったずころで、この皋床の仕事しかできない
でしょう。
Ano hito nara ikura ganbatta tokoro de , kono teido no shigoto
shika dekinai deshō.
Try as he might, this is about the best [level of work] he can do.
*2. Indicates that the outcome of what is stated in the first clause will
not be favorable: “even if, no matter how much.”
今から急いで行ったずころで、時の新幹線には間に合いたせん
よ。
Ima kara isoide itta tokoro de , ichiji no shinkansen ni wa mani-
aimasen yo.

No matter how much we hurry now, we’re just not going to be on
time for the one o’clock Shinkansen.
高岡さんに頌んだずころで、やっおくれるはずがないでしょう。
Takaoka-san ni tanonda tokoro de , yatte kureru hazu ga nai
deshō.
Even if we asked Takaoka, there’s little chance he would do it for us.

30 NO NI のに
1. Used between two clauses to indicate that they are opposed in
meaning: “although, even though, despite the fact that.”
Note: No ni indicates a stronger opposition in meaning than ga (#2,
II-1) or keredomo (#28, no. 1).
池田さんは颚邪で咳が出るのに、タバコばかり吞っおいたす。
Ikeda-san wa kaze de seki ga deru no ni , tabako bakari sutte
imasu.
Even though Ikeda is coughing from a cold, all he does is smoke
cigarettes [he is (still) smoking all the time].
山本さんのパヌティヌには行かないず蚀ったのに、どうしお行くん
ですか。
Yamamoto-san no pātī ni wa ikanai to itta no ni , dō shite iku-n
desu ka.
You said you wouldn’t go to Yamamoto’s party, so why are you
going? / Why are you going to Yamamoto’s party when you said you
wouldn’t?
*2. Used at the end of a sentence, indicates a feeling of
dissatisfaction: “despite the fact that, even though.”
Note: This usage is essentially the same as no. 1, above, except that
the second clause isn’t stated outright. (Words in brackets below
show only one of various imaginable contexts.)
勉匷をしなさいず蚀ったのに  

Benkyō o shinasai to itta no ni

Despite the fact that I told you to study [you didn’t, and are now in
hot water]. / I told you to study!
亀通事故を起こさないように気を぀けおいたのに  
KōtsÅ«-jiko o okosanai yō ni ki o tsukete ita no ni 

Even though I tried to be careful so as not to have an accident
[I
smashed up the car anyway]. / I was trying my best not to get
involved in a automobile accident.
3. “To, in order to.”
ここから湖ぞ行くのに䜕時間ぐらいかかりたすか。
Koko kara mizuumi e iku no ni nanjikan gurai kakarimasu ka.
How long does it take to get from here to the lake? (Lit., In order to
get from here to the lake, about how many hours will it take?)
挢字を芚えるのにいい方法を教えお䞋さい。
Kanji o oboeru no ni ii hōhō o oshiete kudasai.
Please tell me a good way to learn kanji.

31 KUSE NI くせに
1. “Despite the fact that, though.”
Note: This usage is similar to that of no ni (#30, no. 1), but there is
an added feeling of censure or contempt.
子䟛のくせに、倧人の話に口を出しおはいけたせん。
Kodomo no kuse ni , otona no hanashi ni kuchi o dashite wa
ikemasen.
Children shouldn’t interrupt when grown-ups are talking. (Lit.,
Despite the fact [or considering the fact] you are a [mere] child, you
are not to butt in on grown-up’s talk [the way you are doing].)
あの人は胜力もないくせに、地䜍だけは欲しがっおいる。
Ano hito wa nōryoku mo nai kuse ni , chii dake wa hoshigatte iru.
Despite the fact that he has no ability, all he wants is status.
2. Used at the end of a sentence to express censure or contempt.
あなただっおできないくせに  
Anata datte dekinai kuse ni

As if you could do it yourself. (Lit., Despite the fact that even you
couldn’t do it [you are trying to tell me how to].)
自分でもわからないくせに  
Jibun de mo wakaranai kuse ni

As if you understood. (Lit., Despite the fact that even you don’t
understand [you presume to give advice to others].)

32 MONO NO ものの
*1. “But, although.”
Note: Mono no means essentially the same thing as ga (#2, II) and
keredomo (#28), but is a more formal usage and is used more often
in writing than speaking.
その囜は独立したものの、ただ経枈的な問題がたくさんある。
Sono kuni wa dokuritsu shita mono no , mada keizai-teki na
mondai ga takusan aru.
Although the country has become independent, it still has many
economic problems.
アメリカぞ留孊するこずに決めたものの、奚孊金を取るのがむずか
しい。
Amerika e ryūgaku suru koto ni kimeta mono no , shōgaku-kin o
toru no ga muzukashii.
Although I’ve decided to study in the United States, it’s difficult to
get a scholarship.

33 TOKORO GA ずころが
Note: Tokoro ga is always used after the -ta form of a verb. The
tense of this verb, however, is not necessarily past, but is determined
by the tense of the verb in the main clause.
1. Used between two clauses to indicate that they are opposed in
meaning; the result is often unexpected (a. bad result; b. good
result): “but, although, when.”
a) Indicating a bad result.
銀行ぞ行ったずころが、もう閉たっおいた。
Ginkō e itta tokoro ga , mō shimatte ita.
I went to the bank, but it was already closed. / When I got to the
bank, it was already closed.
あの人に䌚いに行ったずころが、䌚議䞭で䌚えなかった。
Ano hito ni ai ni itta tokoro ga , kaigi-chū de aenakatta.
I went to see her, but I couldn’t because she was in a meeting.
b) indicating a good result.
倧孊には合栌できないず思っおいたずころが、合栌通知が来た。
K daigaku ni wa gōkaku dekinai to omotte ita tokoro ga , gōkaku
tsūchi ga kita.
Although I thought I wouldn’t pass [the entrance exam to] K
University, I received a notice that I had.
あたり期埅しおいなかったずころが、そのコンサヌトはすばらしか
った。

Amari kitai shite inakatta tokoro ga , sono konsāto wa
subarashikatta.
Although I hadn’t really been expecting much, the concert was
fabulous.

34 -BA ば
1. Indicates a supposition and result: “if
then.”
Note: -Tara (#35, no. 1) is similar in usage.
明日倩気がよければ、ドラむブに行きたしょう。
Ashita tenki ga yokereba , doraibu ni ikimashō.
If the weather is nice tomorrow, let’s go for a drive.
お金があれば、倧きい家が買いたいですね。
Okane ga areba , ōkii ie ga kaitai desu ne.
If I had the money, I’d like to buy a big house.
2. Indicates that the clause after -ba is the result of the clause before
it: “if
then.”
Note: To (#6, III-3) can also be used here.
六甲山に登れば、神戞の街がきれいに芋えたすよ。
Rokkō-san ni noboreba , Kōbe no machi ga kirei ni miemasu yo.
If you climb Mt. Rokko, you can get a good view of the city of Kobe.
よく緎習すれば、このピアノ曲が匟けるようになりたす。
Yoku renshū sureba , kono piano-kyoku ga hikeru yō ni narimasu.
If you practice hard, you’ll be able to play this piano piece.
*3. Used to introduce a clause: “if” (but not a cause-effect
relationship).

よろしければ、お菓子を召し䞊がっお䞋さい。
Yoroshikereba , okashi o meshiagatte kudasai.
If you would like, please have some of the sweets.
考えおみれば、よくこんなに䌚瀟が倧きくなったものだ。
Kangaete mireba , yoku konna ni kaisha ga ōkiku natta mono da.
I you think about it, it is remarkable that the company has gotten this
big.
4. Idiomatic usages of the -ba conditional.
a) 
ieba: “
stated.”
簡単に蚀えば、それは無理だずいうこずでしょう。
Kantan ni ieba , sore wa muri da to iu koto deshō.
Simply stated, that means it is impossible. (Lit., If we state it
simply
)
b) Dekireba: “if possible (lit., if it can be done).”
できれば明埌日の方が私は郜合がいいんですが  
Dekireba myōgonichi no hō ga watashi wa tsugō ga ii-n desu ga

If possible, the day after tomorrow would be better for me.
*5. Used to connect two similar events or states: “and.”
今日は、倩気もよければ颚もないで、お花芋には最適です。
Kyō wa, tenki mo yokereba kaze mo nai de, o hanami ni wa saiteki
desu.
Today is perfect for flower-viewing: the weather is nice and there’s
no wind.
戊埌は米もなければ野菜もないで、たいぞんでしたよ。
Sengo wa kome mo nakereba yasai mo nai de, taihen deshita yo.

After the war there was no rice and there were no vegetables;
[things] were very difficult.
6. In the form V-ba ii: “one ought to do, one need only do.”
本を借りるには、ここに名前を曞けばいいんです。
Hon o kariru ni wa, koko ni namae o kakeba ii-n desu.
To borrow a book, you need only write your name here.
たしかに宿題を忘れたのは君の責任ですが、先生にあやたりさえす
ればいいんです。
Tashika ni shukudai o wasureta no wa kimi no sekinin desu ga,
sensei ni ayamari sae sureba ii-n desu.
While it was certainly your fault that you forgot the homework, all
you have to do is apologize to the teacher.

35 -TARA たら
1. Indicates a supposition and result: “if
then.”
Note: This usage is similar to -ba (#34, no. 1), although -tara
sounds somewhat more gentle. -Tara is likely to be used when the
result is an intention, request (command), or question.
その料理があたり蟛かったら、私は食べないわ。
Sono ryōri ga amari karakattara , watashi wa tabenai wa.
If that dish is too spicy, I won’t eat it.
圌に䌚ったら、よろしくず蚀っお䞋さい。
Kare ni attara , yoroshiku to itte kudasai.
If you see him, give him my regards (say hello).
山田さんの郜合が悪かったら、誰にワヌプロをたのみたしょうか。
Yamada-san no tsugō ga warukattara , dare ni wāpuro o
tanomimashō ka.
If Yamada is busy (unavailable, occupied, is otherwise engaged), who
shall we ask to do the word processing?
2. Used at the end of a sentence to indicate a proposal; used often by
women: “how about, why not.”
もう遅いから、その仕事明日になさったら。
Mō osoi kara, sono shigoto ashita ni nasattara .
It’s late, so why not do that work tomorrow.
それは小さいから、こちらの倧きいのをお買いになったら。

Sore wa chiisai kara, kochira no ōkii no o okai ni nattara.
That one is small, so why not buy this big one [instead].
3. Used at the end of a sentence to indicate irritation or impatience,
with a meaning something like “I tell you, I’m telling you.”
Note: Whereas with the above usages -tara is added to a verb stem
in the same way as the past-tense ending -ta, in this usage -ttara is
added to the -te and -nasai form of verbs.
早くしおったら  
Hayaku shite-ttara

C’mon, get a move on!
もう寝なさいったら  
Mō nenasai-ttara .
Get to bed, I say [I’m telling you]!
4. Indicates an action which is followed by something being learned:
“when.”
Note: To (#6, III-4) is similar to -tara in this usage.
友達の家ぞ行ったら、圌は留守だった。
Tomodachi no ie e ittara , kare wa rusu datta.
When I went to my friend’s house, [I found that] he was out. / I went
to my friend’s home, but he was out.
ホテルに電話をしたら、郚屋はいっぱいだった。
Hoteru ni denwa o shitara , heya wa ippai datta.
When I called the hotel, [I found that] all the rooms were full. / I
called the hotel, but all the rooms were taken.

5. Indicates that one action follows immediately upon another:
“when, as soon as.”
私が声をかけたら来お䞋さい。
Watashi ga koe o kaketara kite kudasai.
Please come [right away] when I call you.
この仕事が終わったら、そちらぞ行きたす。
Kono shigoto ga owattara , sochira e ikimasu.
I’ll be there as soon as this work is done [as soon as I’m finished
here].

36 NARA なら
Note: See also mono nara (#37).
1. Indicates a supposition and result: “if
then.”
Note: Nara is often used after nouns. It is similar to -ba (#34, no. 1),
-tara (#35, no 1), and to (#6, III-3).
私は午埌なら暇がありたすよ。
Watashi wa gogo nara hima ga arimasu yo.
If [it’s in] the afternoon, I’m free. / I’ll be free in the afternoon.
明日雚なら、ゎルフに行かない぀もりです。
Ashita ame nara , gorufu ni ikanai tsumori desu.
Tomorrow, if it’s raining, I don’t intend to go golfing. / I don’t plan to
go golfing tomorrow if it rains.
あの人が行くなら、私は行きたくないですね。
Ano hito ga iku nara , watashi wa ikitaku nai desu ne.
If she’s going, I sure don’t want to.
Note: A major difference between nara and -tara is that the clause
after nara emphasizes what would (definitely) take place if the
supposed event were to occur, whereas the result clause after -tara
emphasizes what would “happen to” take place.
乗るなら飲むな。飲んだら乗るな。
Noru nara nomu na. Nondara noru na.

If you [are going to] drive, don’t drink. If you have been drinking,
don’t drive.
2. Indicates that a topic is being brought up: “as for.”
その問題なら、もう解決したした。
Sono mondai nara , mō kaiketsu shimashita.
As for that problem, it had already been settled.
和歌の参考曞なら、䜐々朚先生の研究宀にある。
Waka no sankō-sho nara , Sasaki-sensei no kenkyū-shitsu ni aru.
If it’s reference books on waka [that you’re looking for], they’re in
Professor Sasaki’s office.

37 MONO NARA ものなら
*1. After a potential verb or -ō/-yō form of a verb, indicates a
condition and result, with an added sense of censure or threat: “if

then.”
あなたにできるものなら、やっおみお䞋さい。
Anata ni dekiru mono nara , yatte mite kudasai.
If it’s something you can do, go ahead and do it. / If you think you
can do it, go ahead and try.
政治家がそんなばかなこずをしようものなら、囜民は黙っおいたせ
んよ。
Seiji-ka ga sonna baka na koto o shiyō mono nara , kokumin wa
damatte imasen yo.
If the politicians do something stupid like that, the people aren’t
going to keep quiet about it.
*2. Indicates a condition and bad result: “if
then.”
課長がそんなやり方をしようものなら、郚䞋は課長を党然信頌しな
くなるでしょうね。
Kachō ga sonna yarikata o shiyō mono nara , buka wa kachō o
zenzen shinrai shinaku naru deshō ne.
If the section chief goes about it in that way, his subordinates will
lose all faith in him.
これ以䞊仕事を続けようものなら、あなたは死んでしたいたすよ。
Kore ijō shigoto o tsuzukeyō mono nara , anata wa shinde shimai -
masu yo.

If you work any more [any harder] than this, you’re going to die, you
know. / If you continue working the way you are now, you will end
up killing yourself.
*3. Indicates a condition and bad result: “if
then.”
空を飛べるものなら飛んでみたい。
Sora o toberu mono nara tonde mitai.
If it were possible to fly [in the sky], I would like to try it.
䌚瀟ぞ行かなくおいいものなら行きたくない。
Kaisha e ikanakute ii mono nara ikitaku nai.
If it were all right not to go to work, I wouldn’t [want to] go. / I
wouldn’t go to work if I didn’t have to.

38 TOKORO ずころ
1. Indicates that one is on the verge of doing something; preceded by
the root form of the verb: “just about to.”
これから出かけるずころなので、ゆっくり話をする時間はありたせ
ん。
Kore kara dekakeru tokoro na no de, yukkuri hanashi o suru jikan
wa arimasen.
Since I’m just about to go out, I don’t have time for a leisurely talk.
山田さんに電話をするずころですが、䜕か䌝蚀はありたせんか。
Yamada-san ni denwa o suru tokoro desu ga, nani ka dengon wa
arimasen ka.
I’m just about to call Yamada. Do you have any messages for him?
2. Indicates that an action is presently taking place (preceded by V-te
iru
).
今手玙を曞いおいるずころです。
Ima tegami o kaite iru tokoro desu.
I am writing a letter just now. / I am in the midst of writing a letter.
圹員は、今その問題を怜蚎しおいるずころです。
Yakuin wa, ima sono mondai o kentō shite iru tokoro desu.
The directors now have that problem under advisement. / The
directors are just now taking that problem under consideration.
3. Indicates that an action has just come to an end (preceded by V-
ta).

圌は今成田に着いたずころです。
Kare wa ima Narita ni tsuita tokoro desu.
He just now arrived at Narita [Airport].
広田さんは、今日フランスから垰囜したずころですよ。
Hirota-san wa, kyō Furansu kara kikoku shita tokoro desu yo.
Hirota just today returned from France.
4. Indicates the conclusion of a certain action at the end of a clause:
“when, upon.”
デパヌトに問い合わせおみたずころ、その品物は売り切れだった。
Depāto ni toiawasete mita tokoro , sono shinamono wa uri-kire
datta.
When I inquired at the department store, [I found that] the item was
sold out. (Or, Upon asking at the department store,
)
倧孊の図曞通で調べたずころ、その䜜家は詩も曞いおいたこずがわ
かった。
Daigaku no tosho-kan de shirabeta tokoro , sono sakka wa shi mo
kaite ita koto ga wakatta.
When I checked at the university library, I learned that the writer
had written poems as well. (Or, Upon checking at the university
library,
)

39 MONO O ものを
*1. Usually used at the end of a sentence, indicating resentment or
complaint.
お知らせ䞋されば、病院ぞお芋舞いに参りたしたものを  
Oshirase kudasareba, byōin e omimai ni mairimashita mono o

If only you had told me, I would have come to see you at the hospital.
私にできるこずでしたら、お手䌝いしたしたものを  
Watashi ni dekiru koto deshitara, otetsudai shimashita mono o

If there had been something I could have done, I would have helped
out.

40 -NAGARA ながら
1. Indicates that two actions are taking place simultaneously: “as,
while.”
Note: The subject of both clauses must be the same. In English
translation, the main and subordinate clauses of the Japanese are
usually reversed.
毎朝テレビを芋ながら、朝ご飯を食べたす。
Maiasa terebi o minagara , asagohan o tabemasu.
Every morning, I watch television as I eat breakfast. (Lit.,
I eat
breakfast as I watch television.)
青朚さんはい぀も音楜を聞きながら勉匷しおいる。
Aoki-san wa itsu mo ongaku o kikinagara benkyō shite iru.
Aoki always listens to music while he studies. (Lit., Aoki studies
while he listens to music.)
2. Used between two clauses to emphasize that they are opposed in
meaning: “although, while.”
高朚さんは䜓が匱いず蚀いながら、よく倜遅くたで酒を飲んでい
る。
Takagi-san wa karada ga yowai to iinagara , yoku yoru osoku
made sake o nonde iru.
Although Takagi says he was a weak constitution [poor health], he
often drinks until late at night.

あの先生は孊生には遅刻をしないようにず蚀いながら、自分はい぀
も遅れお孊校ぞ来る。
Ano sensei wa gakusei ni wa chikoku o shinai yō ni to iinagara ,
jibun wa itsu mo okurete gakkō e kuru.
Although that teacher tells her students not to be late, she herself is
always late in coming to school.

41 -TARI たり
1. Indicates that several actions are listed in no particular sequence:
“such things as.”
日曜日はたいおい友達ずテニスをしたり、映画を芋に行ったりした
す。
Nichiyōbi wa taitei tomodachi to tenisu o shitari , eiga o mi ni
ittari shimasu.
On Sundays I usually do such things as play tennis with my friends
or go to see movies.
旅行䞭は矎術通に行ったりお土産を買ったりで、あっずいう間に時
間がなくなりたした。
Ryokō-chū wa bijutsu-kan ni ittari omiyage o kattari de, atto iu
ma ni jikan ga nakunarimashita.
Time passed quickly during the trip, what with going to museums,
buying souvenirs for people back home, and such.
Note: Used with only one verb, -tari indicates that the action of the
verb is representative of a number of actions: “such things as
”
倩気の悪い日には、家で音楜を聞いたりしたす。
Tenki no warui hi ni wa, ie de ongaku o kiitari shimasu.
On days when the weather is bad, I listen to music and do other such
things at home.
2. Indicates that several like actions are performed.
午前䞭は挢字を曞いたり読んだりする。

Gozen-chū wa kanji o kaitari yondari suru.
In the morning I read and write kanji.
この頃その俳優のこずをテレビや雑誌で聞いたり芋たりしたす。
Konogoro sono haiyū no koto o terebi ya zasshi de kiitari mitari
shimasu.
These days we [often] see and hear about that actor on TV and in the
magazines.
3. Indicates repetition of contrasting actions.
そんなにテレビを぀けたり消したりしないでちょうだい。
Sonna ni terebi o tsuketari keshitari shinaide chōdai.
Stop turning the TV on and off like that.
今週、株は䞊がったり䞋がったりしおいたす。
Konshū, kabu wa agattari sagattari shite imasu.
Stocks are going up and down this week.
4. Used with the same verb in positive and negative forms:
“sometimes I do and sometimes I don’t.”
父は䜓の調子によっお、ゎルフに行ったり行かなかったりしたす。
Chichi wa karada no chōshi ni yotte, gorufu ni ittari ikanakattari
shimasu.
My father goes to play golf [and not to play golf] depending on his
physical condition.
日曜日には、テレビを芋たり芋なかったりしたす。
Nichiyōbi ni wa, terebi o mitari minakattari shimasu.
Sometimes I watch TV on Sundays and sometimes I don’t.

42 SHI し
1. Indicates (and often emphasizes) the occurrence or existence of
two or more actions or states: “and, as well as.”
ハワむは気候はいいし、花も矎しいし、いいずころですよ。
Hawai wa kikō wa ii shi , hana mo utsukushii shi , ii tokoro desu
yo.
Hawaii is a nice place: the climate is good, and the flowers are
beautiful.
新しい課長は頑固だし、仕事もできないですよ。
Atarashii kachō wa ganko da shi , shigoto mo dekinai desu yo.
The new section chief is pigheaded and can’t do the work either.
2. Indicates a reason or reasons for the following conclusion: “and
,
so.”
竹村さんは、みんなから信頌されおいないし、人気もないし、グル
ヌプをたずめるのは無理でしょう。
Takemura-san wa, minna kara shinrai sarete inai shi , ninki no nai
shi , gurūpu o matomeru no wa muri deshō.
Takemura is not trusted by anyone and is not popular, so it would be
impossible for him to lead the group.
あのレストランは、サヌビスは悪いし、料理はたずいし、行かない
方がいいですよ。
Ano resutoran wa, sābisu wa warui shi , ryōri wa mazui shi ,
ikanai hō ga ii desu yo.
The service at that restaurant is bad and the food is poor, so you had
better not go there.

43 TOMO ずも
1. Used after numbers and counters: “both, all (three, etc.).”
ここにいる人たちは、人ずも倧孊で蚀語孊を勉匷したした。
Koko ni iru hitotachi wa, sannin tomo daigaku de gengo-gaku o
benkyō shimashita.
All three of the people here studied linguistics in college. (Lit., As for
the people who are here, all three
)
このセヌタヌは、枚ずもMサむズですか。
Kono sētā wa, nimai tomo M-saizu desu ka.
Are both of these sweaters mediums?
2. After the -ku form of adjectives, indicates an approximate
maximum or minimum: “at the least, most, latest, etc.”
この家なら、少なくずも億円はするでしょう。
Kono ie nara, sukunaku tomo ichioku-en wa suru deshō.
This house would cost at least 100 million yen.
この事故で死んだ人は、倚くずも100人ぐらいだろう。
Kono jiko de shinda hito wa, ōku tomo hyakunin gurai darō.
The [number of] fatalities in this accident was 100 people at most.
3. Indicates inclusion: “including.”
サヌビス料ずも合蚈1侇5000円です。
Sābisu-ryō tomo gōkei ichiman-gosen-en desu.
The total is ¥15,000, including the service charge.

運賃ずもで、䞇円になりたすが。
Unchin tomo de, goman-en ni narimasu ga.
It comes to ¥50,000, including freight.
*4. Used after the -ō form of a verb, adds emphasis to a supposition:
“even if, no matter.”
あの人ならどんな事があろうずも、最埌たで頑匵るだろう。
Ano hito nara donna koto ga arō tomo , saigo made ganbaru darō.
No matter what happens, he [if anyone] will stick it out to the bitter
end.
明日は雪が降ろうずも、行く぀もりだ。
Ashita wa yuki ga furō tomo , iku tsumori da.
Even if it should snow tomorrow, I intend to go.
*5. In the form tomo arō (noun)ga: “of all people (things).”
銖盞ずもあろう人が、そんなこずをしお平気だずは信じられない。
Shushō tomo arō hito ga, sonna koto o shite heiki da to wa
shinjirarenai.
For the prime minister, of all people, to do something like that and
be calm [about it] is unbelievable. / I can’t believe that someone in
the position of prime minister could do something like that without
the slightest qualm.
倧孊の孊長ずもあろう人が、あんなにビゞョンがないのでは困る。
Daigaku no gakuchō tomo arō hito ga, anna ni bijon ga nai no de
wa komaru.
For the president of the university, of all people, to be so lacking in
vision is a problem (troublesome). / We’re in trouble (in a fix, in
bad shape) if the person who is supposed to be the president of the
university is so lacking in vision.

6. Appearing after two words of opposite meaning and followed by
ienai: “can’t say (yes) or (no).”
倚田さんは、あの映画はいいずも悪いずも蚀えないず蚀っおたし
た。
Tada-san wa, ano eiga wa ii tomo warui tomo ienai to itte
mashita.
Tada said that he couldn’t say whether the movie was good or bad. /
Tada said that it was hard to say whether the movie was good or
bad.
その倀段は、高いずも安いずも蚀えたせんね。
Sono nedan wa, takai tomo yasui tomo iemasen ne.
It’s hard to say whether the price is high or low.
7. At the end of a sentence, adds decisiveness to a positive statement:
“indeed, certainly, of course.”
この本を借りおいいですか。
いいずも。
Kono hon o karite ii desu ka.
Ii
tomo .
May I borrow this book?
Certainly.
明日の詊合に行きたすか。
行くずも。
Ashita no shiai ni ikimasu ka.
Iku
tomo .
Are you going to the game tomorrow?
I certainly am.

44 YARA やら
1. Joins nouns to indicate a non-exhaustive list of items: “such things
as
; and, what with.”
Note: This usage is essentially the same as ya, to ka, and dano,
although these three are used more often in the spoken language.
あの囜の人たちは、戊争やら、むンフレやらで倧倉でしょうね。
Ano kuni no hitotachi wa, sensō yara , infure yara de taihen deshō
ne.
What with war, inflation, and the like, the people of that country
must be having a hard time.
その倧孊には、むギリス人やらフランス人やら、いろいろな囜の人
がいたすよ。
Sono daigaku ni wa, Igirisu-jin yara Furansu-jin yara , iroiro na
kuni no hito ga imasu yo.
At that university there are people from various countries, such as
England and France. (Lit.,
such as Englishmen and Frenchmen.)
2. Used with words of opposite meaning, or with positive and
negative forms of the same word. Ka can replace yara in this usage,
but the latter is softer in tone: “whether, whether or not.”
久矎ちゃんはこのお菓子が奜きなのやら、嫌いなのやら䜕も蚀わな
いんです。
Kumi-chan wa kono okashi ga suki na no yara , kirai na no yara
nani mo iwanai-n desu.
Kumi doesn’t say anything about whether she likes or dislikes this
candy. / Kumi won’t say whether she likes the candy or not.

パヌティヌに行くのやら行かないのやら、はっきりしお䞋さい。
Pātī ni iku no yara ikanai no yara , hakkiri shite kudasai.
Please make it clear [say, make up your mind, decide] whether or not
you are going to the party.
3. Used with interrogative words, expresses uncertainty (in instances
where wakaranai is not explicit, it is understood).
Note: This usage is similar to, but a little softer than, ka (#11, II-3).
あの犬はどこぞ行ったのやら、わからないんですよ。
Ano inu wa doko e itta no yara , wakaranai-n desu yo.
I have no idea where that dog went.
研くんはどの倧孊に入れるやら、本圓に心配です。
Ken-kun wa dono daigaku ni haireru yara , hontō ni shinpai desu.
I’m really worried about which university Ken will be able to get into.
4. Used at the end of a sentence, indicates a rhetorical question with
negative implications: “I wonder.”
来幎はどんな幎になるやら  
Rainen wa donna toshi ni naru yara

I wonder what kind of year next year will be. / I wonder how next
year will turn out.
日本の将来はどうなるやら  
Nippon no shōrai wa dō naru yara

I wonder what Japan’s future will be like. / I wonder about the future
of Japan.

45 DANO だの
1. Indicates a non-exhaustive list of items or actions: “such things
as.”
Note: Dano, a colloquial usage, is similar to yara and to ka.
クリスマスには、友達から本だの、カレンダヌだの、チョコレヌト
だのをもらいたした。
Kurisumasu ni wa, tomodachi kara hon dano , karendā dano ,
chokorēto dano o moraimashita.
At Christmas, I received from friends a book, a calendar, some
chocolates, and other such things.
孊生のずきは、ショパンだのリストだののピアノ曲をよく匟きたし
た。
Gakusei no toki wa, Shopan dano Risuto dano no piano-kyoku o
yoku hikimashita.
When I was a student, I played a lot of piano pieces by such
composers as Chopin and Liszt.
2. Used for a pair of opposite actions or states (either opposite words
or the positive and negative form of the same word).
行くだの行かないだのず蚀わないで、どちらかに決めお䞋さい。
Iku dano ikanai dano to iwanai de, dochira ka ni kimete kudasai.
Stop saying that you will go, and then that you won’t go; make up
your mind one way or the other.

オヌストラリアは、今寒いだの、暑いだのず蚀う人がいお、どちら
なのかわかりたせん。
Ōsutoraria wa, ima samui dano , atsui dano to iu hito ga ite,
dochira na no ka wakarimasen.
Since some people say Australia is cold now, and some say it’s hot,
I’m not sure which it is.

46 NARI なり
1. Indicates a choice: “or, whether or not.”
Note: This usage is similar to the more common ka (#11, II-1), but
nari lends slightly more emphasis.
その問題に぀いお、束田先生なり、高山先生なりに聞いおみお䞋さ
い。
Sono mondai ni tsuite, Matsuda-sensei nari , Takayama-sensei
nari ni kiite mite kudasai.
Please ask either Professor Matsuda or Professor Takayama about
that problem.
明日行くなり、あさっお行くなり、早く決めたしょう。
Ashita iku nari , asatte iku nari , hayaku kimemashō.
Let’s hurry up and decide whether we are going tomorrow or the day
after tomorrow. / Are we going tomorrow or the day after
tomorrow? Let’s hurry up and decide.
2. Indicates a suggestion: “or something.”
ただ時間がありたすから、喫茶店でお茶を飲むなりしたしょうか。
Mada jikan ga arimasu kara, kissaten de ocha o nomu nari
shimashō ka.
Since there’s still time, shall we drink some tea at a coffee shop or
something?
健康のためにテニスなり、ゎルフなり、䜕か運動をした方がいいで
すよ。

Kenkō no tame ni tenisu nari , gorufu nari , nani ka undō o shita
hō ga ii desu yo.
For the sake of your health, you had better get some exercise, like
playing tennis or golf.
*3. Indicates that a second action follows immediately upon the
action preceding it: “as soon as.”
Note: This usage is similar to to (#6, III-1) and -tara (#35, no. 5).
信号が青になるなり、埅っおいた車が走り出した。
Shingō ga ao ni naru nari , matte ita kuruma ga hashiridashita.
As soon as the light turned green, the waiting cars began moving.
山本さんが電車に飛び乗るなり、ドアが閉たった。
Yamamoto-san ga densha ni tobinoru nari , doa ga shimatta.
As soon as Yamamoto jumped into the train, the doors closed.
*4. The expression nan nari: “whatever, anything.”
ご䞍満なこずがあったら、䜕なりずおっしゃっお䞋さい。
Go-fuman na koto ga attara, nan nari to osshatte kudasai.
If there is anything unsatisfactory, please say so [lit., say whatever it
is].
*5. The expression dai nari shō nari: “whether big or small.”
どこにでも、倧なり小なり問題はあるでしょう。
Doko ni de mo, dai nari shō nari mondai wa aru deshō.
There are problems everywhere—some big, some small. / Everyone
has problems, whether they be big or small.

47 -TE WA (-DE WA) おはでは
Note: Here we are concerned with wa in combination with the -te (-
de) form of verbs. See also wa (#1, particularly no. 5) and to wa (#7).
1. Indicates the repetition of two contrasting, alternating actions.
デビットさんは、挢字を曞いおは消し、曞いおは消ししおいたす。
Debiddo-san wa, kanji o kaite wa keshi, kaite wa keshi shite
imasu.
David writes the kanji and erases them, and writes and erases them
[again].
海岞には波が、寄せおは返し、返しおは寄せおいたす。
Kaigan ni wa nami ga, yosete wa kaeshi, kaeshite wa yosete
imasu.
At the shore, the waves advance and recede, recede and advance.
2. In the form ni shite wa (or to shite wa): “for.”
日曜日にしおは、デパヌトがすいおいたすね。
Nichiyōbi ni shite wa , depāto ga suite imasu ne.
For a Sunday, the department stores are not very crowded.
あの人は日本人にしおは、英語がうたいですね。
Ano hito wa Nihon-jin ni shite wa , Eigo ga umai desu ne.
For a Japanese, her English is pretty good.
3. A conditional pattern, always with the result clause in the negative
or with a negative implication.

a) Indicates an undesirable possibility leading to a negative result.
「腹が枛っおは戊ができぬ」ず昔の人は蚀いたした。
“Hara ga hette wa ikusa ga dekinu” to mukashi no hito wa
iimashita.
“You can’t fight on an empty stomach,” people of old said.
b) In the form -te wa komaru: “there will be problems if; you
shouldn’t.”
ここに車を止めおは困りたす。
Koko ni kuruma o tomete wa komarimasu.
You shouldn’t park the car here. (Lit., Parking the car here will be
inconvenient [troublesome, a bother]).
c) In the forms -te wa ikenai or -te wa naranai: “you shouldn’t, you
mustn’t.”
公園で花を取っおはいけたせん。
Kōen de hana o totte wa ikemasen.
You should not pick flowers in the park.
ここでタバコを吞っおはならない。
Koko de tabako o sutte wa naranai.
You must not smoke here.
d) In the form -te wa irarenai: “be unable to.”
この問題に぀いおは、私は黙っおはいられたせん。
Kono mondai ni tsuite wa, watashi wa damatte wa iraremasen.
I cannot remain silent about this problem.

48 DOKORO どころ
1. Emphasizes a negative action or state as against the impossibility
of a contrasting positive action or state: “it is out of the question,
unthinkable, far from.”
この頃は仕事が忙しくお、旅行に行くどころではない。
Konogoro wa shigoto ga isogashikute, ryokō ni iku dokoro de wa
nai.
I’ve been so busy lately, taking a trip is unthinkable.
あの人は秀才どころの話じゃなくお、たるで倩才ですね。
Ano hito wa shūsai dokoro no hanashi ja nakute, maru de tensai
desu ne.
It is not a matter of his being brilliant; he is an absolute genius.
2. In the form dokoro ka, negates the first of two parallel nouns: “far
from; not merely.”
普通は時間ぐらいかかるが、昚日は道が混んでいお、時間どこ
ろか時間もかかった。
Futsū wa ichi-jikan gurai kakaru ga, kinō wa michi ga konde ite,
ichi-jikan dokoro ka san-jikan mo kakatta.
Ordinarily it takes an hour, but yesterday the roads were so crowded
that, far from one hour, it took three.
あの人は英語どころか、フランス語もよくできたすよ。
Ano hito wa Eigo dokoro ka, Furansu-go mo yoku dekimasu yo.
He is good not merely at English, but at French as well.

49 TOSHITE ずしお
1. Indicates status or position: “in the capacity of, as.”
Note: Contrast with o (#18, no. 6).
ショパンは、ポヌランドの䜜曲家ずしお有名です。
Shopan wa, Pōrando no sakkyoku-ka toshite yūmei desu.
Chopin is famous as a Polish composer.
こちらが、亀換孊生ずしお日本ぞ来たホワむトさんです。
Kochira ga, kōkan-gakusei toshite Nihon e kita Howaito-san desu.
This is Ms. White, who has come to Japan as an exchange student.
*2. Used with “one” and counters incorporating “one”: “without
exception.”
あの人たちのする仕事は、぀ずしおいいものがないんです。
Ano hitotachi no suru shigoto wa, hitotsu toshite ii mono ga nai-n
desu.
You can’t say one good thing about the work they do. (Lit., [Of] the
work those people do, there is not one good thing.)
課長はマヌゞャンに、床ずしお勝ったこずがありたせん。
Kachō wa mājan ni, ichido toshite katta koto ga arimasen.
The section chief has never once won at Majong.

50 YORI より
Note: Yori is sometimes displaced by nonstandard yori mo and yori
ka
.
1. Indicates a comparison: “than.”
吉田さんは小出さんより背が高いです。
Yoshida-san wa Koide-san yori se ga takai desu.
Yoshida is taller than Koide.
ニュヌペヌクより東京の方が、人口が倚いです。
Nyūyōku yori Tōkyō no hō ga, jinkō ga ōi desu.
The population of Tokyo is greater than that of New York.
*2. In the form to iu yori: “rather.”
あの人は指導者ずいうより、独裁者です。
Ano hito wa shidō-sha to iu yori , dokusai-sha desu.
He is a dictator rather than a leader. / He is more of a dictator than a
leader.
倧孊の孊長は、孊者ずいうより政治家だ。
A daigaku no gakuchō wa, gakusha to iu yori seiji-ka da.
The president of A University is more of a politician than a scholar.
*3. Used with interrogative words, indicates that the thing previously
mentioned is in the superlative.
この店のフランス料理は、どこよりおいしいず思いたす。

Kono mise no Furansu-ryōri wa, doko yori oishii to omoimasu.
I think that the French food at this restaurant is better than
anywhere else.
圌は私にプロポヌズしたずき、「僕は誰よりも君を愛しおいる」ず
蚀ったのよ。
Kare wa watashi ni puropōzu shita toki, “boku wa dare yori mo
kimi o aishite iru” to itta no yo.
When he proposed to me, he said, “I love you more than anyone.”
お元気そうで䜕よりです。
Ogenki-sō de nani yori desu.
I’m glad to see you looking so well. (Lit., Your looking well is more
than anything.)
*4. Indicates the time or place at which an action begins: “from, at.”
Note: This usage is equivalent to kara (#15, I-1 [time] and I-2
[place]), although yori is more formal and is more commonly used in
writing and elevated speech.
時より閣議が行われたす。
Sanji yori kakugi ga okonawaremasu.
A cabinet meeting will begin at [be held from] three o’clock.
この囜境より向こうが䞭囜です。
Kono kokkyō yori mukō ga Chūgoku desu.
From this [point of the] border on is China. / On the other side of
this border is China.
*5. Indicates a place or position from which an action occurs: “from.”
電車がたいりたすから、癜線より埌ろに䞋がっおお埅ちください。

Densha ga mairimasu kara, hakusen yori ushiro ni sagatte omachi
kudasai.
A train is coming, so please step back from the white line and wait. /
A train is arriving. Please wait behind the white line.
私の家は駅より手前にある。
Watashi no ie wa eki yori temae ni aru.
My house is on this side of the station. (Lit., My house is before
where the station is.)
*6. Indicates a cause, reason, or motivation: “as a result of.”
先月の垂堎調査より次のような結果が明らかになった。
Sengetsu no shijō-chōsa yori tsugi no yō na kekka ga akiraka ni
natta.
As a result of last month’s market research, the following results
have come to light.
河川の汚染より䌝染病が発生した。
Kasen no osen yori densen-byō ga hassei shita.
Infectious diseases have broken out as a result of [due to] polluted
rivers.
*7. In the form yori hoka nai, indicates a limiting of choices to one
only: “there is nothing else but.”
ここたでやったんですから、終わりたでやるよりほかないでしょ
う。
Koko made yatta-n desu kara, owari made yaru yori hoka nai
deshō.
Since we’ve done this much, there is nothing else to do but finish it. /
Since we’ve come this far, we’ll just have to finish it.

停電だから、電気が぀くたで埅っおいるよりほかない。
Teiden da kara, denki ga tsuku made matte iru yori hoka nai.
Because it’s power failure, there is nothing else to do but wait till the
electricity comes on. / Since there’s been a power outage, we’ll
simply have to wait until the electricity comes on.

51 SAE さえ
1. “Even.”
Note: This usage is similar to de mo (#5, no. 2), but is more
emphatic.
その問題は先生でさえ答えられなかった。
Sono mondai wa sensei de sae kotaerarenakatta.
Even the teacher couldn’t answer that [test] question.
そんな簡単なこずは、子䟛でさえ知っおいたすよ。
Sonna kantan na koto wa, kodomo de sae shitte imasu yo.
Even a child knows such a simple thing! / A mere child would know
something as simple as that.
2. In the form sae
-tara or sae
-ba, implies that if something
additional is (had been) done, a positive outcome will occur (would
have occurred): “if only.”
もう分さえあったら、飛行機に間に合ったのに  
Mō gofun sae attara, hikō-ki ni ma-ni-atta no ni

If we had had only five more minutes, we would have been on time
for the flight.
健ちゃんは頭がいいんですから、勉匷さえすればいい倧孊に入れた
すよ。
Ken-chan wa atama ga ii-n desu kara, benkyō sae sureba ii
daigaku ni hairemasu yo.

Ken has a good head on his shoulders, so if he only studies, he’ll be
able to get into a good university.

52 SURA すら
*1. “Even.”
Note: This more formal equivalent of sae (#51, no. 1) is seen most
often in negative sentences.
山田さんは英語の教垫なのに、日垞䌚話すらできない。
Yamada-san wa Eigo no kyōshi na no ni, nichijō-kaiwa sura
dekinai.
Although Yamada is an English teacher, she can’t even carry on an
ordinary conversation.
山で救助された人たちは、疲劎で動くこずすらできなかった。
Yama de kyūjo sareta hitotachi wa, hirō de ugoku koto sura deki -
nakatta.
The people rescued in the mountains were so exhausted they
couldn’t even move.

53 KOSO こそ
*1. Adds emphasis to the word preceding it.
来幎こそ、ペヌロッパぞ旅行したいず思っおいたす。
Rainen koso , Yōroppa e ryokō shitai to omotte imasu.
Next year for certain, I am thinking of making a trip to Europe. /
Next year for sure, I hope to make a trip to Europe.
今床こそ、頑匵りたしょう。
Kondo koso , ganbarimashō.
Let’s give it our best this time.
2. In the idiomatic expression kochira koso: “not at all, the pleasure
is all mine.”
どうも有難うございたした。
こちらこそ。
Dōmo arigatō gozaimashita.
Kochira
koso .
Thank you very much.
The pleasure is all mine. (Lit., It is precisely me [who should be
thanking you].)

SENTENCE-ENDING PARTICLES

There are many sentence-ending particles in Japanese. Used
commonly in the spoken language, these particles, along with the
tone of voice in which they are used, help convey emotional nuances,
often without actually altering in any way the explicit content of the
sentence: e.g., onegai shimasu, onagai shimasu ne, and onegai
shimasu yo
are all similar in that they express a request, but are
softened or emphasized by the appended particle. Furthermore,
certain sentence-ending particles are used predominantly by men,
others by women. Some particles have both end-of-sentence and
mid-sentence usages, such as ga, ka, kara, made, no, keredomo, no
ni
, kuse ni, -tara, mono o, tomo, yara.

54 NE ね
Note: Ne is sometimes pronounced nē.
1. Indicates emotion or feelings of admiration.
きれいな花ねぇ。
Kirei na hana nē .
What a pretty flower!
すばらしい挔奏だったわね。
Subarashii ensō datta wa ne .
That was such a wonderful concert.
Note: Here, wa indicates that a woman is speaking.
2. Indicates agreement with the other person.
本圓にそうですね。
Hontō ni sō desu ne .
Yes, that’s quite true. / That’s so true.
おっしゃる通りですね。
Ossharu tōri desu ne .
Yes, it’s just as you say. / You’re quite right.
3. Softens a request.
できればぜひお願いしたすね。
Dekireba zehi onegai shimasu ne .

If possible, please be sure to [do it]. / If you would [do that], I’d
surely appreciate it.
必ず手玙を䞋さいね。
Kanarazu tegami o kudasai ne .
Be sure to write [me a letter].
4. Indicates a request for confirmation.
あの本、持っお来お䞋さったでしょうね。
Ano hon, motte kite kudasatta deshō ne .
You brought me that book, didn’t you [as I asked you to]? / I suppose
you brought that book for me.
原田さん、今日来るず蚀ったんですね。
Harada-san, kyō kuru to itta-n desu ne .
Harada said that he’d be coming today, right? / It was today, wasn’t
it, that Harada said he would come.
5. Indicates a mild assertion of, or variance in, opinion.
そうですかね。
Sō desu ka ne .
Oh, is that so? / I wonder. / You think so?
本圓にそんなこず起こったんでしょうかね。
Hontō ni sonna koto okotta-n deshō ka ne .
Hmm, I wonder if that’s what actually happened [if something like
that really happened].
6. Indicates a mild assertion.
あの人たち、䜕を考えおいるのかわかりたせんね。

Ano hitotachi, nani o kangaete iru no ka wakarimasen ne .
I just can’t understand what they’re thinking about [what’s going on
in their minds].
私は北海道の方が寒いず思うんですけどね。
Watashi wa Hokkaidō no hō ga samui to omou-n desu kedo ne .
I would think that Hokkaido is colder.

55 YO よ
1. Urges a course of action.
もうだいぶ歩いたから、この蟺でちょっず䌑もうよ。
Mō daibu aruita kara, kono hen de chotto yasumō yo .
Let’s take a break about here, guys. We’ve already walked quite a bit.
あの展芧䌚ぞ行っおみたしょうよ。
Ano tenran-kai e itte mimashō yo .
Come on, let’s go to that exhibition.
2. Indicates a request (somewhat stronger than ne, #54, no. 3).
この仕事はあなたしかできたせんから、ぜひお願いしたすよ。
Kono shigoto wa anata shika dekimasen kara, zehi onegai shimasu
yo .
You’re the only one who can handle this job, so I really want you to
take it on.
私の家にも来お䞋さいよ。
Watashi no ie ni mo kite kudasai yo .
Come to my house, too.
3. Indicates a statement of certainty.
いえ、恵子は小孊校を去幎出たしたから、もう13歳ですよ。
Ie, Keiko wa shōgakkō o kyonen demashita kara, mō jūsan-sai desu
yo .

No, Keiko graduated from elementary school last year, so she’s
already thirteen years old, you see.
今日は金曜日ですよ。
Kyō wa kin’yōbi desu yo .
Today is Friday, you know. (Stated, for example, after someone has
claimed otherwise.)
4. Indicates scolding or contempt.
あの人は仕事ができないわよ。
Ano hito wa shigoto ga dekinai wa yo .
He just can’t do the work!
Note: Here, the combination of wa yo indicates that a woman is
speaking. See #56.
谷さん、そんな悪いこずをしおはいけたせんよ。
Tani-san, sonna warui koto o shite wa ikemasen yo .
Tani, you shouldn’t do anything [bad] like that!

56 WA わ
Note: (1) This wa is written with the kana わ (or
ワ), as opposed to は (or ハ), used for particle #1.
(2) Wa is used mainly by women.
1. Indicates emotion or feelings of admiration.
今倜のオペラは、本圓にすばらしかったわ。
Kon’ya no opera wa, hontō ni subarashikatta wa .
The opera tonight was absolutely fabulous.
この生け花は芋事ですわ。
Kono ikebana wa migoto desu wa .
This flower arrangement is simply splendid!
2. Softens the tone of a statement.
ほかの店で買った方がいいず思うわ。
Hoka no mise de katta hō ga ii to omou wa .
I think it would be better to buy it at another store. / I think you had
better buy it at another store.
私の方が悪かったわ。ごめんなさいね。
Watashi no hō ga warukatta wa . Gomen nasai ne.
It was all my fault. I’m so sorry.

57 KA NA かな
Note: Used principally by men; the women’s equivalent of ka na is
kashira (#58).
1. Indicates uncertainty: “I wonder.”
課長、䜕時に来るかな。
Kachō, nanji ni kuruka na .
What time’s the section chief coming, I wonder.
倚賀君は、この仕事できるかな。
Taga-kun wa, kono shigoto dekuru ka na .
I wonder if Taga can do this job. / Could Taga handle this job? I
wonder.
2. Indicates a question to oneself: “I wonder.”
今日は䜕曜日だったかな。
Kyō wa nan-yōbi datta ka na .
Hmm, what day is today?
田䞭さんず䌚うのは䜕時だったかな。
Tanaka-san to au no wa nanji dattaka na .
Now, what time was it that I was going to meet Tanaka?
3. Indicates a hope or muted request: “I wonder.”
この仕事、頌んでいいかな。
Kono shigoto, tanonde ii ka na .

I wonder if I could ask [you to do] this job. / Can I ask you to take
care of this work?
明日の朝早く䌚瀟に来おもらえるかな。
Ashita no asa hayaku kaisha ni kite moraeru ka na .
I wonder if you could come to the office early tomorrow morning. /
Could you come to the office early tomorrow morning?

58 KASHIRA かしら
Note: The usages of kashira are essentially the same as those of ka
na
, except that they are mostly employed by women.
1. Indicates uncertainty: “I wonder.”
瀟長さん、今日䜕時に䌚瀟ぞいらっしゃいたすかしら。
Shachō-san, kyō nanji ni kaisha e irasshaimasu kashira .
I wonder what time the president will come to the office today.
この機械の䜿い方、ご存じでいらっしゃいたすかしら。
Kono kikai no tsukaikata, gozonji de irasshaimasu kashira .
I wonder if you’re acquainted with how this machine is run.
2. Indicates a question to oneself: “I wonder.”
もう垰っおもいいのかしら。
Mō kaette mo ii no kashira .
I wonder if it’s all right to leave now [if I can leave now].
こんなすおきなプレれントをもらっお、いいのかしら。
Konna suteki na purezento o moratte, ii no kashira .
I wonder if I should accept such a lovely present. / Oh, you shouldn’t
have. / Oh, what a lovely present! I don’t deserve it.
3. Indicates a hope or muted request: “I wonder.”
今晩私の宿題を手䌝っおくれるかしら。
Konban watashi no shukudai o tetsudatte kureru kashira .

I wonder if you would help me with my homework tonight. / Do you
think you could help me with my homework tonight?
コンピュヌタヌの䜿い方、教えおいただけるかしら。
Konpyūtā no tsukaikata, oshiete itadakeru kashira .
I wonder if you could teach me how to operate the computer. / Could
you possibly teach me how to operate the computer?

59 NA な
1. Indicates emotion. Mostly used by men.
Note: Na in this usage is often lengthened to nā.
あの人はすばらしいなあ。
Ano hito wa subarashii nā .
She’s really great [something]!
きれいな星だなあ。
Kirei na hoshi da nā .
What a beautiful star!
2. Asks for another person’s agreement. Used by men.
あの車は新車だよな。
Ano kuruma wa shinsha da yo na .
That’s a new car, right? / That’s a new car, I bet.
あそこは寒いな。
Asoko wa samui na .
It’s cold there, isn’t it.
3. Softens the effect of an assertion.
あの人はなかなか立掟な人だず思うな。
Ano hito wa nakanaka rippa na hito da to omou na .
I really think [I’d say] that he is a fine, upstanding person.

この映画はよくなかったな。
Kono eiga wa yoku nakatta na .
This movie just wasn’t very good.
4. Softens a command or request (first example, a woman speaking
with typical kudasai na pattern; second example, a man).
成田たで行っお䞋さいな。
Narita made itte kudasai na .
Narita [Airport], please [if you please].
明日必ず来いな。
Ashita kanarazu koi na .
Be sure to come tomorrow.
5. Indicates a prohibition. Used by men.
絶察にあい぀に䌚うな。
Zettai ni aitsu ni au na .
Stay away from that bum, you hear. / Keep clear of that guy.
もうあのバヌに行くな。
Mō ano bā ni iku na .
Don’t go to that bar ever again! / No more going to that bar, hear.

60 SA さ
1. Softens an assertion. Used mostly by men.
明日の高橋さんのパヌティヌには、もちろん行くさ。
Ashita no Takahashi-san no pātī ni wa, mochiron iku sa.
I’m going to Takahashi’s party tomorrow, of course.
それより、こっちのセヌタヌの方が倧きいさ。
Sore yori, kotchi no sētā no hō ga ōkii sa .
This sweater’s bigger than that one, I’d say.
2. Indicates a critical response to something.
あんな無胜な瀟員を入れるから、䌚瀟が䌞びないのさ。
Anna munō na shain o ireru kara, kaisha ga nobinai no sa .
It’s because they hire incompetent people like him that the company
doesn’t grow.
あの人のやりそうなこずさ。
Ano hito no yarisō na koto sa .
It’s something he would do. / It’s just like him.

61 KOTO こず
Note: Koto, as a sentence-ending particle, is used mainly by women.
1. Indicates emotion.
この花の色の矎しいこず。
Kono hana no iro no utsukushii koto .
What an exquisite color this flower has!
矎味しいお料理ですこず。
Oishii oryōri desu koto .
What marvelously delicious food!
2. Indicates a suggestion or invitation.
どこかぞお花芋に行きたせんこず。
Doko ka e ohanami ni ikimasen koto .
Shall we go flower viewing somewhere?
䞀床クむヌン゚リザベス号に乗っおみたせんこず。
Ichido Kuīnerizabesu-gō ni notte mimasen koto .
Shall we just once go aboard the Queen Elizabeth?

62 -KKE っけ
Note: -Kke follows V-ta and Adj-ta forms. In feminine speech, the
verb forms tend to be desu, deshita, and V-mashita.
1. Indicates a muted question in cases when there is information
shared with an interlocutor that the speaker is trying to recall.
明日の結婚匏は、䜕時に始たるんでしたっけ。
Ashita no kekkon-shiki wa, nanji ni hajimaru-n deshita-kke .
What time is the wedding going to start tomorrow? / The wedding
tomorrow—what time was it going to start?
あなたの家はどこだったっけ。
Anata no ie wa doko datta-kke .
Now, where was your house? / Where did you say your house was?
2. Indicates that the speaker is remembering something from the
distant past.
この蟺に孊校があったっけ。
Kono hen ni gakkō ga atta-kke .
Didn’t there used to be a school around here? / I seem to remember
that there was a school around here.
あの人ずよく酒を飲んだっけ。
Ano hito to yoku sake o nonda-kke .
Back in the old days I used to go drinking a lot with him. / I
remember going drinking with him quite a bit.

63 -TTEBA っおば
1. Indicates annoyance with another person.
明日たでにできなければ困るっおば。
Ashita made ni dekinakereba komaru-tteba .
I’m telling you, there’s going to be trouble if it’s not done by
tomorrow.
来幎では遅すぎるっおば。
Rainen de wa ososugiru-tteba .
Next year will be too late, I’m telling you.
2. Indicates an indirect command or prohibition.
そんなこずをしたら、だめだっおば。
Sonna koto o shitara, dame da-tteba .
I’m telling you that it’s no good if you do such a thing. / I wouldn’t do
that if I were you.
コンピュヌタヌを䜿わなければ、できないっおば。
Konpyūtā o tsukawanakereba, dekinai-tteba .
I’m telling you that you can’t do it unless you use the computer. /
You won’t get anywhere unless you use the computer, I’d say.

64 -I い
1. Following da or ka, indicates an informal question. Used mostly by
men.
どうしお新宿たで行ったんだい。
Dō shite Shinjuku made itta-n dai .
Why’d you go as far as [all the way to] Shinjuku?
昚日どこで飲んだんだい。
Kinō doko de nonda-n dai .
Where’d you go drinking yesterday?
たたアメリカに出匵かい、倧倉だな。
Mata Amerika ni shutchō kai , taihen da na.
Off to the U.S. on business again? Hang in there.
あの人、元気だったかい。
Ano hito, genki datta kai .
How was she? / How’s she getting along?

65 MONO もの
Note: The primary meaning of mono as a sentence-ending particle is
“because” or “the reason is,” and in the individual usages below, with
their special connotations, this meaning is still vaguely felt.
1. Indicates an excuse, a dissatisfaction, or a desire to be indulged or
pampered. Used by woman.
a) Reason or excuse.
あの映画は面癜くないんですもの。だから、行かなかったのよ。
Ano eiga wa omoshiroku nai-n desu mono . Da kara, ikanakatta
no yo.
That movie is simply too boring. That’s why I didn’t go.
どうしお食べないんだい。
この料理、嫌いなんですもの。
Dō shite tabenai-n dai.
Kono ryōri, kirai nan desu
mono .
Why aren’t you eating?
I simply don’t like this food.
b) Dissatisfaction (with a woman speaking).
課長の仕事はやりたくないわ。䞋の者に冷たいんですもの。
Kachō no shigoto wa yaritaku nai wa. Shita no mono ni tsumetai-n
desu mono .
I don’t want to work for the section chief. He’s so cold to those
working under him.

竹内さんずは䞀緒に仕事をしたくないのよ。ちっずも働かないんだ
もの。
Takeuchi-san to wa issho ni shigoto o shitaku nai no yo. Chitto mo
hatarakanai-n da mono .
I don’t want to work with Takeuchi. He just doesn’t do anything
[doesn’t work].
c) Desire to be indulged or pampered.
出かけたしょうよ。たたには倖で食事がしたいんですもの。
Dekakemashō yo. Tama ni wa soto de shokuji ga shitai-n desu
mono .
Come on, let’s go out. I’d like to eat out once in a while.
あれ欲しいですもの。買っおもいいでしょう。
Are hoshii desu mono . Katte mo ii deshō.
I want it [so badly]. It’s all right if I buy it, isn’t it?

66 ZE ぜ
Note: Adds force to a sentence. When it overlaps with zo (#67), it is
somewhat less emphatic. Ze is used mostly by men.
1. Used to make a declaration to someone or underscore a point.
先に行くぜ。
Saki ni iku ze .
I’m going on ahead. / Leaving now. See you there.
その仕事、君に頌んだぜ。
Sono shigoto, kimi ni tanonda ze .
I’m counting on you to do that job. / It’s [the job’s] up to you now.
頑匵るぜ。
Ganbaru ze .
I’m going to give it my best shot. / I’m hanging tough.

67 ZO ぞ
Note: Zo adds force to a sentence in a more emphatic manner than
ze (#66). Used mostly by men.
1. Indicates a command or threat.
そろそろ䌚議を始めるぞ。
Sorosoro kaigi o hajimeru zo .
Let’s get the meeting under way.
今床そんなこずしたら、絶察に蚱さないぞ。
Kondo sonna koto o shitara, zettai ni yurusanai zo .
If you do that again, I’m not going to let you get away with it. / If you
do anything like that again, you’re going to pay for it.
その仕事、君に頌んだぞ。
Sono shigoto, kimi ni tanonda zo .
I’m expecting you to get the job done. / You’d better get cracking on
that job.
2. Adds force to words of self-encouragement or self-urging.
頑匵るぞ。
Ganbaru zo .
I can do it! / Make way. Here I come.
今床こそ成功するぞ。
Kondo koso seikō suru zo .
I’m going to make it this time. / This time I’m coming up a winner.

68 MONO KA ものか
Note: Men tend to use the forms mono ka andmon ka; women
mono desu ka and mon desu ka.
1. Emphasizes a determination not to do something by means of a
rhetorical question.
あんな所、もう行くもんか。
Anna tokoro, mō iku mon ka .
I wouldn’t be caught dead going there again.
あんな人ず䞀緒に仕事ができるもんですか。
Anna hito to issho ni shigoto ga dekiru mon desu ka .
I wouldn’t work with her again if my life depended on it.

69 NI に
Note: Ni commonly follows darō, deshō, and V-tarō, and essentially
has the same meaning as no ni (#30, no. 2), although the latter is
more common.
1. Expresses regret that something is over and can’t be regained:
“despite the fact that, if only.”
ほかの人がやったら、もっず早くできたでしょうに。
Hoka no hito ga yattara, motto hayaku dekita deshō ni .
Despite the fact that it could have been finished much sooner if
someone else had done it, [unfortunately that was not the case]. / It
could have been finished much sooner if only someone else had
done it.
もう少し埅っおいたら、雚がやんだろうに。
Mō sukoshi matte itara, ame ga yandarō ni .
Despite the fact that if we had waited a little longer, the rain might
have stopped [we didn’t wait]. / If only we had waited a little
longer, the rain might have let up.

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